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Avoiding food contamination with a durable coating for hard surfaces
In the future, a durable coating could help keep food-contact surfaces clean in the food processing industry, including in meat processing plants. A new study from a team of University of Missouri engineers and food scientists demonstrates that the coating—made from titanium dioxide—is capable of eliminating foodborne germs, such as salmonella and E. coli, and provides a preventative layer of protection against future cross-contamination on stainless steel food-contact surfaces.
7/16/2020 phys.org
Heat stress in gestating dairy cows impairs performance of future generations
It is estimated that in the United States, environmental heat stress in cows costs the dairy industry more than $1.5 billion annually due to decreased milk production, impaired reproductive performance, increased rates of illness, and shortened lifespans. But what effects do heat stress in pregnant cows have on the productivity and health of their female offspring in the future, and how much might this affect dairy producers' costs? In a recent article appearing in the Journal of Dairy Science, scientists from the University of Florida and the University of California, Davis investigated the performance and profitability of two future generations of cows born to mothers exposed to heat stress during pregnancy.
7/16/2020 phys.org
Accelerated drying increases potential wildfire ignitions statewide in Texas
Significant wildfire activity has increased statewide, and accelerated drying has elevated the potential for new wildfire ignitions. New wildfires will become increasingly difficult to extinguish if current temperatures and drying conditions persist into August as forecasted, according to Texas A&M Forest Service experts.
10m ago phys.org
Women may not be counted accurately during Census, professor says
It's no secret the COVID-19 pandemic forced businesses and schools to close and people to shelter in place, forcing millions to file for unemployment and delivering a huge blow to the U.S. economy.
10m ago phys.org
Uncovering crime patterns using location data
When and where does crime arise in cities? To answer this question, criminologists have previously relied on rather static models. Crime has been linked, for example, to the structure of the resident population or to the use of land in a neighborhood. The influence that mobility has on the incidence of crime was previously an unknown quantity.
11m ago phys.org
Q&A: Airborne water leak detection using an innovative 'triangle method'
This year is on course to be one of the hottest since measurements began and Europe saw its joint second warmest June on record. While the global soaring temperature is heavily impacting water resources, it is crucial to address the leakages in pipes and transmission mains. In some European countries almost half of the channeled water is lost before it reaches the tap.
13m ago phys.org
Pine trees have an ecological memory
Climate change is leading to drier conditions in Valais. For around two decades now, many Scots pines in the canton have been dying, in some cases over large areas. The Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL) is conducting an irrigation experiment to investigate the growth of Scots pines in the Pfyn Forest. Since 2003, it has been irrigating a number of plots within the forest to illustrate the dependency of pine growth on an adequate water supply.
13m ago phys.org
ENSO influences trans-Pacific ozone transport from vegetation fires in Southeast Asia
Long-range transboundary transport of air pollutants (e.g. ozone) is one of the important environmental concerns globally. Previous studies on trans-Pacific transport of air pollutants have been mainly focused on the influence of anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion sources in Asia, especially from China. This study reveals that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-modulated vegetation fires in Southeast Asia, rather than fossil fuel plumes from China, dominate the springtime trans-Pacific transport of ozone across the entire North Pacific Ocean.
13m ago phys.org
Wonders of animal migration: How sea turtles find small, isolated islands
One of Charles Darwin's long-standing questions on how turtles find their way to islands has been answered thanks to a pioneering study by scientists.
13m ago phys.org
Exotic neutrinos will be difficult to ferret out
An international team tracking 'new physics' neutrinos has checked the data of all the relevant experiments associated with neutrino detections against Standard Model extensions proposed by theorists. The latest analysis, the first with such comprehensive coverage, shows the scale of challenges facing right-handed neutrino seekers, but also brings a spark of hope.
14m ago phys.org
How to teach gold to tell left from right
Nanometer-sized gold particles consisting of only a few atoms can be used as catalysts for important chemical reactions. Noelia Barrabés from the Institute of Materials Chemistry at TU Wien has been researching new methods of adapting and precisely controlling such tiny gold clusters for years. Now she has been awarded an Elise-Richter scholarship.
16m ago phys.org
The ecological footprint of European colonization at the doorway to the Americas
Historical figures such as Columbus have returned to the centre of public debate. Much remains to be discovered about his legacy and current impact on our society. A new study shows the ecological footprint that the arrival of Europeans left in the Caribbean islands.
17m ago phys.org
COVID-19 lockdown reduced dangerous air pollutants in five Indian cities by up to 54 percent
The COVID-19 crisis and subsequent lockdown measures have led to a dramatic reduction of harmful air pollutants across major cities in India, finds a new study from the University of Surrey.
25m ago phys.org
Scientists see COVID-19 as historic moment for UK's environmental future
A leading group of University of Manchester academics are imploring policy makers to use the UK's post-pandemic recovery as a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to lead a positive green revolution.
28m ago phys.org
This Photo of the Sun Is the Closest Ever Taken
Close-up reveals a surface dancing with ‘campfires’ -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
28m ago scientificamerican.com
Close-ups of the sun
Only a few months after its launch, ESA's Solar Orbiter has captured images of the sun from a previously unattainable distance. Among other things, these images reveal structures in the sun's atmosphere that could possibly be interpreted as so-called nanoflares, very small bursts of radiation. The images from the six remote sensing instruments published today were taken in the days before and after 15 June, when the spacecraft reached the point closest to the sun on its current orbit. Only 77 million kilometres separated the probe from our star. Although this early mission phase is primarily aimed at commissioning the instruments, the data already provide impressive evidence of Solar Orbiter's uniquely comprehensive view of the sun—from the magnetic fields at the surface to the particles streaming into space. The Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) in Germany is an important partner of the mission and is significantly involved in four of the instruments.
31m ago phys.org
Light and nanoparticles against cancer
Leiden Ph.D. student Xuequan Zhou has designed a new promising molecule that efficiently kills cancer cells, but does not harm healthy tissue. The trick: the drug is only active when irradiated with light. Zhou's new compound does this extra efficiently by cleverly self-organising into nanoparticles. The research made it to the front cover of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
34m ago phys.org
Video: Closer than ever: Solar Orbiter's first views of the sun
The first images from ESA's Solar Orbiter are already exceeding expectations and revealing interesting new phenomena on the sun.
37m ago phys.org
Synthetic mRNAs modified with sulfur atoms boost efficient protein synthesis
Since mRNAs play a key role in protein synthesis in vivo, the use of mRNAs as medicines and for in vitro protein synthesis has been desired. In particular, mRNA therapeutics hold the potential for application to vaccine therapy against coronaviruses and are being developed. However, the efficiency of protein production with mRNAs in the natural form is not sufficient enough for certain purposes, including application to mRNA therapeutics. Therefore, mRNA molecules allowing for efficient protein production have been required to be developed.
46m ago phys.org
Ancient DNA from Doggerland separates the U.K. from Europe
Thousands of years ago the UK was physically joined to the rest of Europe through an area known as Doggerland. However, a marine inundation took place during the mid-holocene, separating the British landmass from the rest of Europe, which is now covered by the North Sea.
58m ago phys.org
Review of microfinance studies finds many flaws, no conclusions
What do we know about microfinance—often touted as the solution for the economic woes of developing countries? Practically nothing, say researchers from UConn's Department of Agricultural and Resources and Economics.
1h ago phys.org
250,000 tonnes of shipping CO2 emissions saved thanks to machine learning insight
Maritime engineers have trained an energy shipping app to save over a quarter of a million tonnes of CO2 emissions by applying machine learning to its predictive system.
1h ago phys.org
New dinosaur discovery in Switzerland fills a gap in evolutionary history of sauropods
Dinosaurs were the dominant group of animals on Earth for over 150 million years. Long-necked, plant-eating sauropods such as Brontosaurus, Diplodocus and Brachiosaurus are probably among the most famous dinosaurs, in part thanks to their huge size and strange body shape (consisting of a long neck, long tail, round body and columnar limbs). Some of the largest sauropods measured up to 37 metres long.
1h ago phys.org
Remote jury trials during COVID-19: what one project found about fairness and technology
On March 23 2020, jury trials in England and Wales were suspended in response to COVID-19. This was done to protect public safety as social distancing measures were difficult to implement in courtrooms. Since then, several proposals, such as remote trials, have been put forward to address how jury trials might continue, and how to tackle the backlog of crown court cases which currently stands at over 40,500.
1h ago phys.org
Coronavirus: how lockdown exposed food insecurity in a small Bangladeshi city
The COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as far more than a health crisis for the world's poor and marginalised, exposing faultlines in food systems around the world. The UN's World Food Programme warned in early July that 270 million people will face food insecurity before the end of 2020.
1h ago phys.org
Predicting X-ray absorption spectra from graphs
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a popular characterization technique for probing the local atomic structure and electronic properties of materials and molecules. Because atoms of each element absorb X-rays at characteristic energies, XAS is well suited for mapping out the spatial distribution of elements in a sample. Typically, scientists perform XAS experiments at synchrotron light sources—such as the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)—because they provide very bright, tunable X-rays. By measuring the absorbance in a sample at varying X-ray energies, scientists can generate a plot called an X-ray absorption spectrum.
1h ago phys.org
An effective climate change solution may lie in rocks beneath our feet
Why has Earth's climate remained so stable over geological time? The answer just might rock you.
1h ago phys.org
Your pension has a huge role to play in combating climate change – here's how to make it sustainable
The onus to live sustainably has never been greater. It drives everyday actions from making sure we recycle our rubbish to carrying reusable cups and bottles with us wherever we go. But there's an enormous part of many people's lives that they probably don't pay much attention to and that's where their pension money is invested.
1h ago phys.org
Black Lives Matter, LGBTQ rights, Trump: The risks and rewards of corporate activism
Companies and CEOs are increasingly wading into political issues. My latest research suggests that such corporate activism can come with high costs if it doesn't align with the political values of a company's customers, employees and local lawmakers—or big gains when it does.
1h ago phys.org
Hurricane Maria's impact on Puerto Rico's population will last for decades, study shows
Life for the people of Puerto Rico hasn't been the same since Hurricane Maria devastated the island in September 2017.
1h ago phys.org
How Rwanda extracts methane from Lake Kivu for electricity
Lake Kivu lies on the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda. It's almost the size of Mauritius and has a maximum depth of 480 meters. Lake Kivu also stores huge amounts of methane gas which Rwanda is extracting to produce electricity. Natacha Tofield Pasche explains how this process works.
1h ago phys.org
How we learned more about dangerous pollutants in Lagos lagoon
Lagos lagoon is the largest of four lagoon systems off the Gulf of Guinea. Several rivers and waterways empty into it, and it plays an important role in the West African coastal ecosystem as well as the Nigerian economy.
1h ago phys.org
Scientists identify new species of sea sponge off coast of British Columbia
A University of Alberta research team discovered a new sea sponge off the coast of British Columbia that could play a major role in the overall health of delicate reef ecosystems in the area.
1h ago phys.org
Most dietary guidelines are not compatible with global health and environmental targets
A team of researchers, including the University of Adelaide, has found most dietary recommendations provided by national governments are incompatible with global health and environmental targets such as the Paris Climate Agreement, and are in need of reform.
1h ago phys.org
Fish reef domes a boon for environment, recreational fishing
In a boost for both recreational fishing and the environment, new UNSW research shows that artificial reefs can increase fish abundance in estuaries with little natural reef.
1h ago phys.org
Poor work-life balance may be damaging your health
Working adults across Europe with poor work-life balance are more likely to report poor general health, according to a study published in the open access journal BMC Public Health.
1h ago phys.org
E-waste-eating protein creates rare earth elements
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers, in collaboration with Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL), have designed a new process, based on a naturally occurring protein, that could extract and purify rare earth elements (REE) from low-grade sources. It could offer a new avenue toward a more diversified and sustainable REE sector for the United States.
1h ago phys.org
New hope for rare breeds as a healthy filly foal is born from sexed semen
It's the first time in the world that this technique has been used to support the survival of rare breeds.
1h ago phys.org
Image: Comet NEOWISE seen in an aurora-filled sky
Comet NEOWISE is visible in an aurora-filled sky in this photo by Aurorasaurus Ambassador Donna Lach. The photo was taken early on July 14, 2020, in western Manitoba, Canada. The purple ribbon-like structure to the left is STEVE, an aurora-related phenomenon discovered with the help of citizen scientists working with the Aurorasaurus project. The bright streak near the top of the image is a meteor.
1h ago phys.org
New research of oldest light confirms age of the universe
Just how old is the universe? Astrophysicists have been debating this question for decades. In recent years, new scientific measurements have suggested the universe may be hundreds of millions of years younger than its previously estimated age of approximately 13.8 billions of years. Now new research published in a series of papers by an international team of astrophysicists, including Neelima Sehgal, Ph.D., from Stony Brook University, suggest the universe is about 13.8 billion years old. By using observations from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) in Chile, their findings match the measurements of the Planck satellite data of the same ancient light.
1h ago phys.org
AI upscales Apollo lunar footage to 60 FPS
As exciting and thrilling as it is to watch all the historic footage from the Apollo moon landings, you have to admit, the quality is sometimes not all that great. Even though NASA has worked on restoring and enhancing some of the most popular Apollo footage, some of it is still grainy or blurry.
1h ago phys.org
Archaeologists date earliest known occupation of North America
A team led by Newcastle University, UK, used analysis of ancient coprolites—fossilized excrement—to identify that samples from one of the most famous "pre-Clovis" sites at Paisley Caves, in Oregon, north America, contained human fecal biomarkers.
1h ago phys.org
Silane regulates thermal conductivity of composites on molecular level
A research team from the Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science has conducted a study on thermal conductivity of composites. They found that thermal conductivity (TC) of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/boron nitride composite film could be regulated on the molecular level by covalent coupling.
1h ago phys.org
Nanocomposites with rich oxygen vacancies promote sensitive electroanalysis of Hg(II)
Recently, Yang Meng and his colleagues from the Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science reported a sensitive electrochemical sensing performance of Ru-loaded single-crystalline (100) CeO2 nanocomposites toward heavy metal ions (e.g., Hg(II)).
1h ago phys.org
Novel partial isovalent anion substitution induction strategy to design infrared nonlinear optical materials
Infrared nonlinear optical (IR–NLO) materials are crucial for a broad range of applications, such as signal communication, microscopy and data processing. Yet, the challenge is how to obtain a strictly structural non-centrosymmetric (NCS) compound, which is the primary requirement for the IR–NLO materials.
1h ago phys.org
Undescribed mexicanolide-type limonoids are isolated from twigs and leaves of Cipadessa baccifera
Cipadessa baccifera is a bushy shrub with pinnate leaves mainly distributed in tropical Asia. It has been traditionally used as folk medicine by Dai people in Xishuangbanna, southwest China for treatment of various diseases such as dysentery, malaria, pruritus (itchy skin), rheum, rheumatism, and burns and scalds.
1h ago phys.org
How proteins regulate the outer envelope of bacterial cells
Like all cells, bacteria have a membrane that shields them from the outside like a skin. This barrier is not static, but has to allow transport of substances in and out and be flexible so that the bacterial cells can grow. In order to implement these properties, different types of proteins are active in cells, including the so-called flotillins. These proteins are present in cells from bacteria to humans. Until now, scientists assumed that these flotillins mainly help in the formation of other functional protein complexes and confine highly ordered areas of the cell membrane.
1h ago phys.org
Revealing the global environmental impacts of healthcare
An Australian-led, multiregional study has found that the healthcare sector causes up to 5 percent of total global environmental damage, placing it alongside other major global contributors to climate change.
1h ago phys.org
Antarctica more widely impacted by climate change than previously thought
Antarctica is considered one of the Earth's largest, most pristine remaining wildernesses. Yet since its formal discovery 200 years ago, the continent has seen accelerating human activity. Reporting in the journal Nature, a research team including Tilburg University show where human activities have been conducted and uncover two main concerns: wilderness in Antarctica is decreasing due to an increasing "human footprint" and biodiversity is under pressure because species mainly depend on areas that are strongly influenced by humans. However, much opportunity exists to take swift action.
1h ago phys.org
Researchers find technique for 3-D printing on nanoscale that can correct mistakes
University of Dayton physics and electro-optics researchers Md Shah Alam, Qiwen Zhan and Chenglong Zhao have created a less expensive 3-D printing method on a nanoscale, or a thousand times smaller than a human hair, that can manufacture nanostructures and erase mistakes. Top nanotechnology journal Nano Letters published their findings.
1h ago phys.org
Researchers observe new, very short-lived neptunium isotope
In a recent study, researchers at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their collaborators reported the first discovery of 222Np, a new very short-lived neptunium (Np) isotope, and validated the N = 126 shell effect in Np isotopes.
1h ago phys.org
Physicists engineer an optical mirror made of only a few hundred atoms
Physicists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have engineered the lightest optical mirror imaginable. The novel metamaterial is made of a single structured layer that consists only of a few hundred identical atoms. The atoms are arranged in the two dimensional array of an optical lattice formed by interfering laser beams. The research results are the first experimental observations of their kind in an only recently emerging new field of subwavelength quantum optics with ordered atoms. So far, the mirror is the only one of its kind. The results are today published in Nature.
1h ago phys.org
Russian hackers have been accused of targeting covid-19 vaccine researchers
The news: Russian hackers targeted UK, US, and Canadian researchers developing coronavirus vaccines, according to a report from the United Kingdom, American, and Canadian intelligence services. The hackers: The Russian intelligence hacking group known as Cozy Bear or APT29 has been blamed. You might know Cozy from its many previous high-profile cyber-espionage ventures, most notably…
1h ago technologyreview.com
Mapping the solar system: from the moon to Bennu
As NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft prepares to briefly touch down and collect a sample from the asteroid Bennu in October, the mission's science team, led by the University of Arizona, has worked meticulously to create the highest resolution global map of any planetary body, including Earth. The endeavor is the latest in the university's long history of celestial imaging and mapping—one that began with the first lunar landings.
1h ago phys.org
Nobel Prize Winner Questions Peacock's Feathers
Originally published in November 1954 -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
1h ago scientificamerican.com
Health care has a huge environmental footprint, which then harms health. This is a matter of ethics
The health impacts of environmental change are now squarely on the radar. Australia's recent intense wildfires is one glaring example. Spillover of the virus causing the COVID-19 pandemic from animals to humans is another.
1h ago phys.org
OpenAI’s fiction-spewing AI is learning to generate images
In February of last year, the San Francisco–based research lab OpenAI announced that its AI system could now write convincing passages of English. Feed the beginning of a sentence or paragraph into GPT-2, as it was called, and it could continue the thought for as long as an essay with almost human-like coherence. Now, the…
1h ago technologyreview.com
Ending 'streaming' is only the first step to dismantling systemic racism in Ontario schools
Last week, the Ontario government announced its plan to end streaming in Grade 9, something Education Minister Stephen Lecce acknowledged is a "racist, discriminatory" practice.
2h ago phys.org
Humans are encroaching on Antarctica's last wild places, threatening its fragile biodiversity
Since Western explorers discovered Antarctica 200 years ago, human activity has been increasing. Now, more than 30 countries operate scientific stations in Antarctica, more than 50,000 tourists visit each year, and new infrastructure continues to be developed to meet this rising demand.
2h ago phys.org
Solar Orbiter gives scientists unprecedented look at Sun
Scientists said Thursday they had obtained the closest ever images taken of the Sun as part of a pan-European mission to study solar winds and flares that could have far-reaching impacts back on Earth.
2h ago phys.org
Greater flood risks in the coastal region of China due to slower tropical cyclone movement
A study led by the Department of Geography at Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) has revealed that the observed average moving speed (or translation speed) of tropical cyclones making landfall over the coast of China dropped by 11% between 1961 and 2017. These slow-moving tropical cyclones brought about 20% more local total rainfall on average when compared with fast-moving ones, resulting in greater flood risks in the region.
2h ago phys.org
Russian wildfire smoke choking Siberian cities
Smoke from raging forest fires in Siberia was filling cities Thursday as officials scrambled to prevent the flames from reaching homes.
2h ago phys.org
Spacewalking astronauts closing in on final battery swaps
A pair of spacewalking astronauts tackled the final set of battery swaps outside the International Space Station on Thursday.
2h ago phys.org
Study reveals how a dangerous parasite controls its host cell to spread around the body
Researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have discovered new information about how a dangerous parasite takes control of a patient's cells as it spreads throughout their body, an important finding that could help in the development of new drugs to treat this infection.
2h ago phys.org
3D printed batteries handle the squeeze
While flexible and stretchable electronics technologies have progressed in leaps and bounds over the past 10 years, batteries to power them have some catching up to do. Researchers in Singapore and China have now demonstrated a "quasi-solid-state" battery—made from materials somewhere between a liquid and a solid—that can be compressed by as much as 60% while maintaining high energy density and good stability over 10,000 charge–recharge cycles. The battery fabrication exploits 3-D printing, which, while attracting interest for producing complex battery structures, has posed challenges for batteries that can stretch, squash and bend while powering devices.
2h ago phys.org
Cape Canaveral Prepares for First Polar Launches in 60 Years  
Florida will soon reopen to launches for pole-orbiting spacecraft  -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
2h ago scientificamerican.com
Unusual nanoparticles could benefit the quest to build a quantum computer
Imagine tiny crystals that "blink" like fireflies and can convert carbon dioxide, a key cause of climate change, into fuels.
3h ago phys.org
Blood iron levels could be key to slowing ageing, gene study shows
Genes linked to ageing that could help explain why some people age at different rates to others have been identified by scientists.
3h ago phys.org
These are the closest images of the sun ever taken
It’s been a banner year for solar observations so far. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope in Hawaii presented some of the best images ever taken of the sun, showing us a caramel-like surface where individual cells of plasma ooze up and down hypnotically. Not to be outdone, the ESA-led Solar Orbiter mission has just…
3h ago technologyreview.com
New transient X-ray source detected in the galaxy NGC 4945
Using the Suzaku satellite, Japanese astronomers have detected a transient X-ray source in a nearby galaxy known as NGC 4945. The newly discovered source, designated Suzaku J1305−4930, appears to be a black hole binary. The finding is detailed in a paper published July 8 on the arXiv pre-print repository.
3h ago phys.org
How Many Aliens Are in the Milky Way? Astronomers Turn to Statistics for Answers
The tenets of Thomas Bayes, an 18th-century statistician and minister, underpin the latest estimates of the prevalence of extraterrestrial life -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
3h ago scientificamerican.com
New technology promises to revolutionize nanomedicine
Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and their colleagues from Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences have developed a breakthrough technology to resolve a key problem that has prevented the introduction of novel drugs into clinical practice for decades. The new solution prolongs blood circulation for virtually any nanomedicine, boosting its therapeutic efficiency. The Russian researchers' study was published in Nature Biomedical Engineering and featured in the journal's News & Views section.
4h ago phys.org
Rare twin red-ruffed lemurs born at Singapore zoo
Twin red-ruffed lemurs have been born at Singapore zoo, officials said Thursday, a rare double delivery that is a boost for the endangered saucer-eyed primates.
4h ago phys.org
New research shows climate was the key factor impacting the movement of the first farmers across Europe
The research, a collaboration between the University of Roehampton, the University of Cambridge and several other institutions, combined archeological data with palaeoclimatic reconstructions to show for the first time that climate dramatically impacted the migration of people across Europe, causing a dramatic slowdown between 6,100 BCE and 4,500 BCE.
4h ago phys.org
Giant Hawaii telescope builders say no construction in 2020
Scientists planning to build one of the world's largest telescopes on a Hawaii mountain said Wednesday construction won't begin until at least next year.
4h ago phys.org
Siberia heat 'almost impossible' without climate change
A heatwave in Siberia that saw temperature records tumble as the region sweltered in 38-degree Celsius highs was "almost impossible" without the influence of manmade climate change, leading scientists said.
4h ago phys.org
On Antarctica, humanity's small footprint has big impact
Humanity's accelerating impact on the vast wilderness of Antarctica extends well beyond scientific stations and eco-tourism along its fringes, both in scope and intensity, scientists warned Wednesday.
4h ago phys.org
Russia launches probe into 'orange' Urals streams
Russian prosecutors on Wednesday said they were conducting an inspection of a facility supposed to treat acid runoff from an abandoned Urals mine after photographs emerged of streams running orange.
4h ago phys.org
Rushing Science in the Face of a Pandemic Is Understandable but Risky
We need to be extremely careful about the inevitable pitfalls -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
4h ago scientificamerican.com
Second Coronavirus Strain May Be More Infectious--but Some Scientists Are Skeptical
Researchers question whether a mutated viral strain that infected more cells in a lab dish is necessarily more transmissible among humans -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
5h ago scientificamerican.com
G20 carbon 'food-print' highest in meat-loving nations: report
If everyone alive ate steaks and dairy the way Brazilians and Americans do, we would need an extra five planets to feed the world, according to the first report to compare the carbon emissions from food consumption in G20 nations, released Thursday.
5h ago phys.org
Devices can reduce fibers produced in laundry cycle by up to 80%
Using fiber-catching devices as part of the laundry process can dramatically reduce the amount of microscopic particles potentially entering the marine environment, according to new research.
5h ago phys.org
When should you neuter your dog to avoid health risks?
Some dog breeds have higher risk of developing certain cancers and joint disorders if neutered or spayed within their first year of life. Until now, studies had only assessed that risk in a few breeds. A new, 10-year study by researchers at the University of California, Davis, examined 35 dog breeds and found vulnerability from neutering varies greatly depending on the breed. The study was published in the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science.
9h ago phys.org
Mixed progress highlights support gaps for pupils with English as additional language
Newly-arrived pupils who speak English as an additional language (EAL) often make 'mixed' linguistic and academic progress during their first years in British schools, which need a proper framework to give them sustained support, a study suggests.
9h ago phys.org
Breeding new rice varieties will help farmers in Asia
After interviewing smallholder farmers throughout South and Southeast Asia, one of the top needs they mentioned is development of shorter duration rice varieties with only 100 days from sowing to harvest. Some farmers want to have more time to prepare for the next season crop, whereas other farmers are concerned about irrigation water running out during the dry season. Another benefit in countries such as the Philippines is reducing the risk of adverse weather (e.g., typhoons) affecting the crop compared to longer duration varieties.
9h ago phys.org
NASA finds limited water vapor as depression 06E becomes a trough
When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Eastern Pacific Ocean, it gathered water vapor data on Tropical Depression 06E that showed it had opened up into a trough. A trough is an elongated area of low pressure.
9h ago phys.org
Twitter blocked tweets from verified accounts after a massive security breach
What do Joe Biden, Barack Obama, Elon Musk, and Bill Gates have in common? Dozens of high-profile verified Twitter accounts were hacked on Wednesday, seemingly to push a cryptocurrency scam that may have netted upwards of $100,000 in a matter of minutes. These kinds of scams are old hat on Twitter, but never have so…
17h ago technologyreview.com
New research of oldest light confirms age of the universe
New research suggest the universe is about 13.8 billion years old, according to researchers using observations from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) in Chile.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Does eating fish protect our brains from air pollution?
Older women who eat more than one to two servings a week of baked or broiled fish or shellfish may consume enough omega-3 fatty acids to counteract the effects of air pollution on the brain, according to a new study.
18h ago sciencedaily.com
When should you neuter your dog to avoid health risks?
A new, 10-year study by researchers at the University of California, Davis, examined 35 dog breeds and found vulnerability from neutering, and the age at which they are neutered, varies greatly depending on the breed.
18h ago sciencedaily.com
'Bystander' cytosines meet their match in gene-editing technique
Biomolecular engineers at Rice University have found a C-worthy technique that dramatically enhances the accuracy of gene editing.
18h ago phys.org
Do campaign finance reforms truly help make elections more competitive?
Proponents of campaign finance reform claim that putting limits on how much money can be raised and spent to support a political candidate leads to more competitive elections by helping level the political playing field between incumbents—the people holding the political office—and challengers. However, a new study by two social scientists at the University of Missouri finds state campaign finance reforms actually have no beneficial effect on the competitiveness of state legislative elections. Instead, some reforms, such as limits on corporate political spending and public financing of elections, advantage incumbents.
19h ago phys.org
Invasive hedgehogs and ferrets habituate to and categorize smells
To catch a thief, the saying goes, you have to think like a thief. The same is true for invasive predators: to foil their depredations on native wildlife, scientists have to understand how they think.
19h ago phys.org
Slow growth the key to long term cold sensing
Plants have to interpret temperature fluctuations over timescales ranging from hours to months to align their growth and development with the seasons.
19h ago phys.org
Single drop of blood could help rapidly detect radiation sickness
A new proof-of-concept study reports evidence that a new testing method has the potential to rapidly identify radiation sickness based on biomarkers measured through a single drop of blood. Scientists say the test could help save lives through early and real-time identification of the condition to enable timely clinical interventions.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
'Bystander' Cs meet their match in gene-editing technique
Biomolecular engineers have developed new tools to increase the accuracy of CRISPR single-base editing to treat genetic diseases.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
New evidence challenges Euro-centric narrative of early colonization
In American history, we learn that the arrival of Spanish explorers led by Hernando de Soto in the 1500s was a watershed moment resulting in the collapse of Indigenous tribes and traditions across the southeastern United States.
19h ago phys.org
World population likely to shrink after mid-century, forecasting major shifts in global population and economic power
With widespread, sustained declines in fertility, the world population will likely peak in 2064 at around 9.7 billion, and then decline to about 8.8 billion by 2100 -- about 2 billion lower than some previous estimates, according to a new study.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Scientists constructed 'DNA droplets' comprising designed DNA nanostructures
In living organisms, DNA is the storage unit of all genetic information. It is with this information that proteins are encoded, which then enable biological systems to function as needed for the organism to survive. DNA's functioning is enabled by its structure: a double-stranded helix formed via the joining of specific pairs of molecules called 'nucleotides' in specific orders, called 'sequences'. In recent decades, scientists in the fields of DNA nanotechnology have been able to design DNA sequences to construct desired nanostructures and microstructures, which can be used to investigate biomolecular functions or create artificial cell systems.
20h ago phys.org
Identifying sources of deadly air pollution in the United States
A new study from University of Minnesota researchers provides an unprecedented look at the causes of poor air quality in the United States and its effects on human health.
20h ago phys.org
Researchers using ultraviolet lasers make unprecedented measurement of nanomaterials
University of Colorado Boulder researchers have used ultra-fast extreme ultraviolet lasers to measure the properties of materials more than 100 times thinner than a human red blood cell.
20h ago phys.org
AI model to forecast complicated large-scale tropical instability waves in Pacific Ocean
Large-scale oceanic phenomena are complicated and often involve many natural processes. Tropical instability wave (TIW) is one of these phenomena.
20h ago phys.org
New nuclear magnetic resonance method enables monitoring of chemical reactions in metal containers
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is employed in a wide range of applications. In chemistry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is in standard use for the purposes of analysis, while in the medical field, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to see structures and metabolism in the body. Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the Helmholtz Institute Mainz (HIM), working in collaboration with visiting researchers from Novosibirsk in Russia, have developed a new method of observing chemical reactions.
20h ago phys.org
Twisting magnetic fields for extreme plasma compression
A new spin on the magnetic compression of plasmas could improve materials science, nuclear fusion research, X-ray generation and laboratory astrophysics.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
High-fat diet with antibiotic use linked to gut inflammation
Researchers have found that combining a Western-style high-fat diet with antibiotic use significantly increases the risk of developing pre- inflammatory bowel disease. This combination shuts down the mitochondria in cells of the colon lining, leading to gut inflammation. Mesalazine can help restart the mitochondria and treat pre-IBD condition.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Molecular 'tails' are secret ingredient for gene activation in humans, yeast, and other organisms
Researchers have discovered how diverse forms of life are able to use the same cellular machinery for DNA transcription.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Urban bees: Pollinator diversity and plant interactions in city green spaces
With the right mix of plants, urban green spaces can be a rich habitat to support diverse pollinators, according to a new study.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Scientists uncover key process in the manufacture of ribosomes and proteins
Researchers have shown that an enzyme called RNA polymerase (Pol) II drives generation of the building blocks of ribosomes, the molecular machines that manufacture all proteins in cells based on the genetic code.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Credit-card sized tool provides new insights into how cancer cells invade host tissues
Researchers have developed a credit-card sized tool for growing cancer cells outside the human body, which they believe will enhance their understanding of breast cancer metastasis. The device reproduces various environments within the human body where breast cancer cells live. Studying the cells as they go through the process of invasion and metastasis could point the way toward new biomarkers and drugs to diagnose and treat cancer.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Only a third of pediatricians fully follow guidelines on peanut allergy prevention
While 93 percent of U.S. pediatricians surveyed were aware of the national guidelines on peanut allergy prevention in infants, only 30 percent were fully implementing the recommended practices and 64 percent reported partial implementation, according to the study.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Bacteria with a metal diet discovered in dirty glassware
Newfound bacteria that oxidize manganese help explain the geochemistry of groundwater.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Study first to show tiger sharks' travels and desired hangouts in the Gulf of Mexico
From 2010 to 2018, scientists tagged 56 tiger sharks of varying life stages to track their movements via satellite. Movement patterns varied by life stage, sex, and season. Some of their core habitats overlapped with locations designated by NOAA as Habitat Areas of Particular Concern and also were found near 2,504 oil and gas platforms. Findings may help inform studies into potential climate change, oil spills, and other environmental impacts on tiger shark movement in the Gulf of Mexico.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Study of natural gas flaring finds high risks to babies
Researchers have found that exposure to flaring -- the burning off of excess natural gas -- at oil and gas production sites is associated with 50% higher odds of preterm birth, compared with no exposure.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Early life stress is associated with youth-onset depression for some types of stress but not others
Examining the association between eight different types of early life stress (ELS) and youth-onset depression, a study reports that individuals exposed to ELS were more likely to develop a major depressive disorder (MDD) in childhood or adolescence than individuals who had not been exposed to ELS.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Researchers find three distinct immune responses for sicker COVID-19 patients
Researchers have discovered three distinct immune responses to the SARS-CoV2 infection that could help predict the trajectory of disease in severe COVID-19 patients and may ultimately inform how to best treat them. A second study uncovered new details about the innate, or initial, response to SARS-CoV2.
20h ago sciencedaily.com
Cases of black hole mistaken identity
Astronomers have discovered one type of growing supermassive black hole masquerading as another, thanks to a suite of telescopes including NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The true identity of these black holes helps solve a long-running mystery in astrophysics.
20h ago phys.org
4-foot prehistoric-looking bird seen at Outer Banks lighthouse is on wrong coast, experts say
Strange things often wash up on North Carolina's Outer Banks, and the National Park Service says the latest example is a big, prehistoric-looking bird that is far outside its natural range.
20h ago phys.org
Researchers develop first of its kind, simple test for identifying toxic silver ions
Chemistry researchers at the University of North Texas have developed a test to more easily identify toxic silver ions, which can be harmful to humans and the environment at high concentrations.
20h ago phys.org
Exercise in a first-year writing course increases retention at broad-access universities
Colleges and universities strive to use best practices and innovative ways to cultivate and support students' sense of belonging, a consideration that is acutely important during the COVID-19 era.
20h ago phys.org
Marine drifters: Interdisciplinary study explores plankton diversity
Ocean plankton are the drifters of the marine world. They include algae, animals, bacteria, and protists that are at the mercy of the tide and currents. Many are microscopic, though others, like jellyfish, can grow to relatively large sizes.
20h ago phys.org
Hyksos, 15th Dynasty rulers of Ancient Egypt, were an internal takeover
The Hyksos, who ruled during the 15th Dynasty of ancient Egypt, were not foreign invaders, but a group who rose to power from within, according to a study published July 8, 2020 in the open-access journal PLoS ONE by Chris Stantis of Bournemouth University, UK and colleagues.
20h ago phys.org
Movements of tiger sharks at varying life stages tracked in Gulf of Mexico
A tracking study of 56 sharks provides a first look at how their patterns of movement across the Gulf of Mexico vary according to their sex, their life stage, and the season. Matthew Ajemian of Florida Atlantic University, U.S., and colleagues present these findings in the open-access journal PLoS ONE on July 15.
20h ago phys.org
Urban bees: pollinator diversity and plant interactions in city green spaces
With the right mix of plants, urban green spaces can be a rich habitat to support diverse pollinators, according to a study published July 15, 2020 in the open-access journal PLoS ONE by Benjamin Daniels from RWTH Aachen University, Germany, and colleagues.
20h ago phys.org
What COVID-19 can teach tourism about the climate crisis
The global coronavirus pandemic has hit the tourism industry hard worldwide. Not only that, but it has exposed a lack of resilience to any type of downturn, according to new research from Lund University in Sweden. While the virus may or may not be temporary, the climate crisis is here to stay—and tourism will have to adapt, says Stefan Gössling, professor of sustainable tourism.
21h ago phys.org
Low-cost catalyst helps turn seawater into fuel at scale
The Navy's quest to power its ships by converting seawater into fuel is one step nearer fruition.
21h ago phys.org
New Mygatt-Moore quarry research leads to prehistoric climate finds
Top predator dinosaurs like the Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus devouring dinosaur remains isn't all that surprising, but the smaller creatures feasting on dinosaur remains may just give us a more complete picture of what life was like at Mygatt-Moore Quarry outside Fruita, Colorado 152 million years ago. A new study out in PeerJ on Wednesday, July 15th, 2020 authored by Museums of Western Colorado's Paleontologist Dr. Julia McHugh, looks at the insect species who feasted on decaying dinosaurs back in the Jurassic period.
21h ago phys.org