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Proton membranes assembled from 2-D layered phosphorus nanosheets
A team of researchers affiliated with a host of institutions in China has developed a new class of proton-exchange membranes (PEMs) assembled from transition-metal phosphorus trichalcogenide nanosheets. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes using metal vacancies to improve conductivity in the PEMs. Fengmei Wang and Jun He with the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing have published a Perspective piece in the same journal issue outlining the history of proton exchange membrane research and the work done by the team in this new effort.
10/30/2020 phys.org
Evolution of consumption: A psychological ownership framework
Technological innovations are rapidly changing how we consume goods and services. In many domains, we are trading ownership of private material goods for access to use shared and experiential goods and services. This article outlines how the downstream effects of these consumption changes are channeled through their influence on psychological ownership -- the feeling that a thing is MINE.
10/30/2020 sciencedaily.com
Researchers develop interactive database for translatable circular RNAs based on multi-omics evidence
A specialized database has been published online in Nucleic Acids Research. Called TransCirc, the database provides comprehensive evidence supporting the translation potential of circular RNAs (circRNAs). This database was generated by integrating various direct and indirect evidence to predict coding potential of each human circRNA and the putative translation products.
10/30/2020 phys.org
An ancient crater triplet on Mars
Mars is covered in intriguing scars—some of the most prominent being impact craters. A particularly unusual example is shown in this new image from ESA's Mars Express: an ancient triplet comprising not one but three overlapping craters.
10/30/2020 phys.org
Lighting a path to Planet Nine
The search for Planet Nine—a hypothesized ninth planet in our solar system—may come down to pinpointing the faintest orbital trails in an incredibly dark corner of space.
10/30/2020 phys.org
Scientists explain the paradox of quantum forces in nanodevices
Researchers from the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) have proposed a new approach to describe the interaction of metals with electromagnetic fluctuations (i.e., with random bursts of electric and magnetic fields). The obtained results have applications in both fundamental physics, and for creating nanodevices for various purposes. The article was published in the European Physical Journal C.
0m ago phys.org
Emerging digital tools for marine and freshwater conservation
The digital revolution in the age of big data is creating new research opportunities. Approaches such as culturomics and iEcology promise to provide huge benefits and novel sources of information for ecological research, and conservation management and policy. In a recent publication, an international research team led by the Biology Center of the Czech Academy of Sciences is looking at the opportunities and challenges of applying these tools in aquatic research.
3m ago phys.org
Tube-dwelling anemone toxins have pharmacological potential, mapping study shows
Researchers based in Brazil and the United States have completed the first-ever mapping exercise to profile the toxins produced by tube-dwelling anemones, or cerianthids, a family of marine animals belonging to the same phylum (Cnidaria) as sea anemones, jellyfish and corals. The analysis revealed that the toxins that can act on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and cell walls, among other functions, paving the way to the discovery of novel medications.
51m ago phys.org
Seven Ways the Election Will Shape the Future of Science, Health and the Environment
Climate change, nuclear arms control, the pandemic and more will be determined by whoever wins the White House and Congress -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
1h ago scientificamerican.com
Censored by China, under attack in America: what’s next for WeChat?
Four years ago, Bin Xie was happy to sing the praises of WeChat. The IT manager from Houston had seen his pro-Trump blog, “Chinese Voice of America,” go viral on the app.  Today, Xie stands firmly behind his president, but his relationship with the platform that fueled his rise has soured. The shift didn’t happen…
2h ago technologyreview.com
Australia bushfire inquiry warns 'compounding disasters' to come
Australians should be ready for "compounding" overlapping crises as they face more frequent, costly and severe climate change-worsened disasters, an inquiry into the nation's recent historic bushfires warned Friday.
3h ago phys.org
AI has cracked a key mathematical puzzle for understanding our world
Unless you’re a physicist or an engineer, there really isn’t much reason for you to know about partial differential equations. I know. After years of poring over them in undergrad while studying mechanical engineering, I’ve never used them since in the real world. But partial differential equations, or PDEs, are also kind of magical. They’re…
3h ago technologyreview.com
After wolves rebound across US West, future up to voters
The saucer-sized footprints in the mud around the bloody, disemboweled bison carcass were unmistakable: wolves.
4h ago phys.org
Evolution of consumption: A psychological ownership framework
Researchers from Boston University, Rutgers University, University of Washington, Cornell University, and University of Pennsylvania published a new paper in the Journal of Marketing that proposes that preserving psychological ownership in the technology-driven evolution of consumption underway should be a priority for marketers and firm strategy.
4h ago phys.org
Archaeologists reveal human resilience in the face of climate change in ancient Turkey
An examination of two documented periods of climate change in the greater Middle East, between approximately 4,500 and 3,000 years ago, reveals local evidence of resilience and even of a flourishing ancient society despite the changes in climate seen in the larger region.
4h ago phys.org
Decaying jellyfish blooms can cause temporary changes to water column food webs
Decaying jellyfish blooms fuel the rapid growth of just a few strains of seawater bacteria, effectively keeping this organic material within the water column food web, reveals a new study published in Frontiers in Microbiology. This research furthers our understanding of how marine ecosystems are impacted by jellyfish blooms, which have been observed to be happening on a more frequent basis.
7h ago phys.org
Living near a White Dwarf
A planet orbiting the glowing corpse of a sunlike star micht be a surprisingly benign place to be -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
8h ago scientificamerican.com
Election Science Stakes: Environment
Scientific American senior editor Mark Fischetti talks about how this election will affect environmental science and policy. -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
11h ago flex.acast.com
A wave of ransomware hits US hospitals as coronavirus spikes
American hospitals are being targeted in a wave of ransomware attacks as covid-19 infections in the US break records and push the country’s health infrastructure to the limit. As reports emerge of attacks that interrupted health care in at least six US hospitals, experts and government officials say they expect the impact to worsen—and warn…
14h ago technologyreview.com
Stronger treatments could cure Chagas disease
Researchers have found that a more intensive, less frequent drug regimen with currently available therapeutics could cure the infection that causes Chagas disease.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
Comparing sensitivity of all genes to chemical exposure
An environmental health scientist has used an unprecedented objective approach to identify which molecular mechanisms in mammals are the most sensitive to chemical exposures.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
Path to nanodiamond from graphene found
Researchers expand their theory on converting graphene into 2D diamond, or diamane.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
Tuning biomolecular receptors for affinity and cooperativity
Our biological processes rely on a system of communications -- cellular signals -- that set off chain reactions in and between target cells to produce a response. The first step in these often complex communications is the moment a molecule binds to a receptor on or in a cell, prompting changes that can trigger further signals that propagate across systems. From food tasting and blood oxygenation during breathing to drug therapy, receptor binding is the fundamental mechanism that unlocks a multitude of biological functions and responses.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
World's first agreed guidance for people with diabetes to exercise safely
An academic has helped draw up a landmark agreement amongst international experts, setting out the world's first standard guidance on how people with diabetes can use modern glucose monitoring devices to help them exercise safely. The guidance will be a crucial resource for healthcare professionals around the world, so they can help people with type 1 diabetes.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
Landscape to atomic scales: Researchers apply new approach to pyrite oxidation
Pyrite, or fool's gold, is a common mineral that reacts quickly with oxygen when exposed to water or air, such as during mining operations, and can lead to acid mine drainage. Little is known, however, about the oxidation of pyrite in unmined rock deep underground.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
Fungal species naturally suppresses cyst nematodes responsible for major sugar beet losses
The plant pathogenic nematode Heterodera schachtii infects more than 200 different plants, including sugar beets, and causes significant economic losses. Over the past 50 years, the primary management tool in California has been crop rotation. When the number of H. schachtii in a soil exceeds a threshold, growers are contractually required by the local sugar factory to plant crops that do not support the nematode's reproduction. This practice reduces the nematode population so that the next sugar beet crop can flourish.
14h ago phys.org
Team finds path to nanodiamond from graphene
Marrying two layers of graphene is an easy route to the blissful formation of nanoscale diamond, but sometimes thicker is better.
14h ago phys.org
'Time machine' offers new pancreatic cancer drug testing approach
Many patients with pancreatic cancer have only about a 10% chance of survival within five years of their diagnosis because they tend to become resistant to chemotherapy, past studies have indicated.
15h ago phys.org
Researcher uses computer vision to determine which politicians' Instagram posts resonate most
As the country enters the final days of a marathon and polarizing election season, politicians' faces are everywhere. And that trend is not likely going anywhere, especially in the realm of social media.
15h ago phys.org
Researchers develop a method for tuning biomolecular receptors for affinity and cooperativity
Our biological processes rely on a system of communications—cellular signals—that set off chain reactions in and between target cells to produce a response. The first step in these often complex communications is the moment a molecule binds to a receptor on or in a cell, prompting changes that can trigger further signals that propagate across systems. From food tasting and blood oxygenation during breathing to drug therapy, receptor binding is the fundamental mechanism that unlocks a multitude of biological functions and responses.
15h ago phys.org
Losing ground in biodiversity hotspots worldwide
Between 1992 and 2015, the world's most biologically diverse places lost an area more than three times the size of Sweden when the land was converted to other uses, mainly agriculture, or gobbled up by urban sprawl.
15h ago phys.org
Corporations directing our attention online more than we realize
We know how search engines can favor certain results and how social media might push us into bubbles, but it's still easy to view the internet as a place where we're in control.
15h ago phys.org
Fed up with the election? Science explains how politics got so awful
One year ago, a report from the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security assessed the readiness of 195 countries around the world to confront a deadly disease outbreak. Topping the list of most-prepared nations was the United States of America.
15h ago phys.org
Trump administration drops gray wolf from endangered species list
Heralded as one of the greatest success stories of the Endangered Species Act, the gray wolf will lose federal protections under a Trump administration decision announced Thursday.
15h ago phys.org
Wild horse found dead on the Outer Banks—but cause is a mystery, officials say
One of the wild horses that roam the Outer Banks was found dead on a beach at Cape Lookout National Seashore, and the cause remains a mystery, the National Park Service said Wednesday.
15h ago phys.org
Here's why shark researchers are concerned about a potential COVID-19 vaccine
Science's steady march to find a vaccine capable of ending the coronavirus pandemic may come at the expense of another species: sharks.
15h ago phys.org
Climate Change Sets a Drought Trap for U.S. Corn
Weed- and insect-resistant crops have boosted overall yields, but do not improve resilience to dry conditions -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
16h ago scientificamerican.com
Impact craters reveal details of Titan's dynamic surface weathering
Scientists have used data from NASA's Cassini mission to delve into the impact craters on the surface of Titan, revealing more detail than ever before about how the craters evolve and how weather drives changes on the surface of Saturn's mammoth moon.
16h ago phys.org
Experiment uses smart city lighting to measure streetlight emissions
When satellites take pictures of Earth at night, how much of the light that they see comes from streetlights? A team of scientists from Germany, the U.S., and Ireland have answered this question for the first time, thanks to "smart city" lighting technology that allows cities to dim their lights. The results were published today in the journal Lighting Research & Technology.
16h ago phys.org
How many habitable planets are out there?
Thanks to new research using data from the Kepler space telescope, it's estimated that there could be as many as 300 million potentially habitable planets in our galaxy. Some could even be pretty close, with several likely within 30 light-years of our Sun. The findings will be published in The Astronomical Journal, and research was a collaboration of scientists from NASA, the SETI Institute, and other organizations worldwide.
16h ago phys.org
Asteroid samples tucked into capsule for return to Earth
A NASA spacecraft tucked more than 2 pounds of asteroid samples into a capsule for return to Earth after losing some of its precious loot because of a jammed lid, scientists said Thursday.
16h ago phys.org
A groundbreaking genetic screening tool for human organoids
Many of the fundamental principles in biology and essentially all pathways regulating development were identified in so-called genetics screens. Originally pioneered in the fruit fly Drosophila and the nematode C. elegans, genetic screens involve inactivation of many genes one by one. By analyzing the consequences of gene loss, scientists can draw conclusions about its function. This way, for example, all genes required for formation of a brain can be identified.
16h ago phys.org
Citizen astronomers reshape asteroids from their backyard
There are nearly one million catalogued asteroids, but we don't know much about many of them. Now Unistellar and its scientific partner, the SETI Institute, can count on a network of nearly 3,000 amateurs capable of observing thousands of asteroids and providing an estimate of their size and shape. With mobile stations located in Asia, North America and Europe, the Unistellar network, the largest network of citizen astronomers, participates in cutting-edge research and has delivered its first scientific results including the 3-D shape model of an asteroid and the size of another one.
16h ago phys.org
Water fleas on 'happy pills' have more offspring
Zooplankton can grow faster and produce more offspring when exposed to a substance that affects human happiness.
16h ago phys.org
Asteroid Ryugu shaken by Hayabusa2's impactor
Professor Arakawa Masahiko (Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Japan) and members of the Hayabusa2 mission discovered more than 200 boulders ranging from 30 cm to 6m in size, which either newly appeared or moved as a result of the artificial impact crater created by Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa2's Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) on April 5th, 2019. Some boulders were disturbed even in areas as far as 40m from the crater center. The researchers also discovered that the seismic shaking area, in which the surface boulders were shaken and moved an order of centimeters by the impact, extended about 30m from the crater center. Hayabusa2 recovered a surface sample at the north point of the SCI crater (TD2), and the thickness of ejecta deposits at this site were estimated to be between 1.0mm to 1.8 cm using a Digital Elevation Map (DEM).
16h ago phys.org
Using better colours in science
Colors are often essential to convey scientific data, from weather maps to the surface of Mars. But did you ever consider that a combination of colors could be "unscientific?" Well, that's the case with color scales that use rainbow-like and red–green colors, because they effectively distort data. And if that was not bad enough, they are unreadable to those with any form of color blindness. Researchers from the University of Oslo and Durham University explain scientific color maps, and present free-to-download and easy-to-use solutions in an open-access paper released today in Nature Communications.
16h ago phys.org
Density fluctuations in amorphous silicon discovered
For the first time, a team at HZB has identified the atomic substructure of amorphous silicon with a resolution of 0.8 nanometres using X-ray and neutron scattering at BESSY II and BER II. Such a-Si:H thin films have been used for decades in solar cells, TFT displays, and detectors. The results show that three different phases form within the amorphous matrix, which dramatically influences the quality and lifetime of the semiconductor layer.
16h ago phys.org
Violent cosmic explosion revealed by ALMA: The merging of massive protostars?
The phenomenon of molecular outflow was first discovered in the 1980's. Very high velocity motions were detected in the line wings of the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule, seen towards young forming stars. The high velocity motions obviously could not be gravitationally bound motions (such as infall or rotation) because of the required large gravitating masses. The first detections were in fact in the extremely bright CO lines in the center of the Orion nebulae, which were already seen when CO was first detected in the interstellar medium.
16h ago phys.org
Molecular compass for cell orientation
Plants have veins that transport nutrients throughout their whole body. These veins are organized in a highly ordered manner. The plant hormone auxin travels directionally from cell-to-cell and provides cells with positional information, coordinating them during vein formation and regeneration. Until now, it remained a mystery how cells translate auxin signals into a formation of a complex system of veins. Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria discovered a molecular machinery that perceives a local auxin concentration and allows cells to synchronize their behavior to coordinate veins formation and regeneration. The scientists published their study in the journal Science. This phenomenon also applies to wound healing and might lead to more mechanically resistant plants and further agricultural implications.
16h ago phys.org
A Running List of Record-Breaking Natural Disasters in 2020
The year has already seen many extremes, from California’s and Colorado’s largest wildfires to a tropical cyclone boom -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
17h ago scientificamerican.com
High-sugar diet can damage the gut, intensifying risk for colitis
Mice fed diets high in sugar developed worse colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and researchers examining their large intestines found more of the bacteria that can damage the gut's protective mucus layer.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Breakthrough quantum-dot transistors create a flexible alternative to conventional electronics
Researchers have created fundamental electronic building blocks out of tiny structures known as quantum dots and used them to assemble functional logic circuits.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Direction decided by rate of coin flip in quantum world
Flip a coin. Heads? Take a step to the left. Tails? Take a step to the right. In the quantum world? Go in both directions at once, like a wave spreading out. Called the walker analogy, this random process can be applied in both classical and quantum algorithms used in state-of-the-art technologies such as artificial intelligence and data search processes. However, the randomness also makes the walk difficult to control, making it more difficult to precisely design systems.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Touch and taste? It's all in the tentacles
Scientists identified a novel family of sensors in the first layer of cells inside the suction cups that have adapted to react and detect molecules that don't dissolve well in water. The research suggests these sensors, called chemotactile receptors, use these molecules to help the animal figure out what it's touching and whether that object is prey.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Spring-run and fall-run Chinook salmon aren't as different as they seem
Historically, spring-run and fall-run Chinook salmon have been considered as separate subspecies, races, ecotypes, or even as separate species of fish. A new genetic analysis, however, shows that the timing of migration in Chinook salmon is determined entirely by differences in one short stretch of DNA in their genomes.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
A groundbreaking genetic screening tool for human organoids
Researchers have developed CRISPR-LICHT, a revolutionary technology that allows genetic screens in human tissues such as brain organoids. By applying the novel technology to brain organoids, the ER-stress pathway was identified to play a major role in regulating the size of the human brain.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Study identifies pitfall for correcting mutations in human embryos with CRISPR
The most detailed analysis to date of CRISPR genome editing in human embryos finds a significant risk of chromosomal abnormalities when using the technique at earliest stage of human development.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Molecular compass for cell orientation
Plants have veins that transport nutrients through their body. These veins are highly organized. The hormone auxin travels directionally from cell-to-cell and provides cells with positional information, coordinating them during vein formation and regeneration. Scientists now discovered how cells translate auxin signals into forming a complex system of veins. This phenomenon also applies to wound healing and might lead to more mechanically resistant plants and further agricultural implications.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Study of ancient dog DNA traces canine diversity to the Ice Age
A global study of ancient dog DNA presents evidence that there were different types of dogs more than 11,000 years ago in the period immediately following the Ice Age.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Muscle pain and energy-rich blood: Cholesterol medicine affects the organs differently
Contrary to expectation, treatment with statins has a different effect on blood cells than on muscle cells, a new study reveals. Today, statins are mainly used in the treatment of elevated cholesterol, but the new results may help design drugs for a number of conditions.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Denisovan DNA in the genome of early East Asians
Researchers analyzed the genome of the oldest human fossil found in Mongolia to date and show that the 34,000-year-old woman inherited around 25 percent of her DNA from western Eurasians, demonstrating that people moved across the Eurasian continent shortly after it had first been settled by the ancestors of present-day populations. This individual and a 40,000-year-old individual from China also carried DNA from Denisovans, an extinct form of hominins that inhabited Asia before modern humans arrived.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Study of ancient dog DNA traces canine diversity to the Ice Age
A global study of ancient dog DNA, led by scientists at the Francis Crick Institute, University of Oxford, University of Vienna and archaeologists from more than 10 countries, presents evidence that there were different types of dogs more than 11,000 years ago in the period immediately following the Ice Age.
17h ago phys.org
Hybrid photoactive perovskites imaged with atomic resolution for the first-time
A new technique has been developed allowing reliable atomic-resolution images to be taken, for the first time, of hybrid photoactive perovskite thin films. These images have significant implications for improving the performance of solar cell materials and broadened the understanding of these technologically important materials. The breakthrough was achieved by a joint team from the University of Oxford and Diamond Light Source who have just released a new paper to be published in Science on 30 October, titled "Atomic-scale microstructure of metal halide perovskite."
17h ago phys.org
New Denisovan DNA expands diversity, history of species
While the continents of Africa and Europe have been obvious and fruitful treasure troves for exploration and discovery of our modern human origins, Asia has been somewhat overlooked. Scientists have thought that modern humans left Africa about 60,000 years ago and, as they colonized Western Eurasia, found a world empty of any other archaic hominin species. This assumption stemmed in part from the fact that the prehistory of Asia is poorly known compared to that of Africa and Europe.
17h ago phys.org
Denisovan DNA in the genome of early East Asians
Researchers have analyzed the genome of the oldest human fossil found in Mongolia to date and show that the 34,000-year-old woman inherited around 25 percent of her DNA from western Eurasians, demonstrating that people moved across the Eurasian continent shortly after it had first been settled by the ancestors of present-day populations. This individual and a 40,000-year-old individual from China also carried DNA from Denisovans, an extinct form of hominins that inhabited Asia before modern humans arrived.
17h ago phys.org
Study: Republicans and Democrats hate the other side more than they love their own side
The bitter polarization between the Republican and Democratic parties in the U.S. has been on the rise since Newt Gingrich's partisan combat against President Bill Clinton in the 1990s. But according to a new Northwestern University-led study, disdain for the opposing political party now—and for the first time on record—outweighs affection for one's own party.
17h ago phys.org
Spring-run and fall-run Chinook salmon aren't as different as they seem
Historically, spring-run and fall-run Chinook salmon have been considered as separate subspecies, races, ecotypes, or even as separate species of fish. A new genetic analysis, however, shows that the timing of migration in Chinook salmon is determined entirely by differences in one short stretch of DNA in their genomes.
17h ago phys.org
Toward next-generation molecule-based magnets
Magnets are deployed in a range of technology applications, including satellites, telephones and refrigerator doors. However, they are made up of heavy, inorganic materials whose component elements are, in some cases, of limited availability.
17h ago phys.org
Streetlights contribute less to nighttime light emissions in cities than expected
When satellites take pictures of Earth at night, how much of the light that they see comes from streetlights? A team of scientists have answered this question for the first time using the example of the U.S. city of Tucson, thanks to 'smart city' lighting technology that allows dimming. The result: only around 20 percent of the light in the Tucson satellite images comes from streetlights.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Positive outlook predicts less memory decline
A new study finds that people who feel enthusiastic and cheerful -- what psychologists call 'positive affect' -- are less likely to experience memory decline as they age. This result adds to a growing body of research on positive affect's role in healthy aging.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Corporations directing our attention online more than we realize
It's still easy to think we're in control when browsing the internet, but a new study argues much of that is 'an illusion.' Corporations are 'nudging' us online more than we realize, and often in hidden ways. Researchers analyzed click-stream data on a million people over one month of internet use to find common browsing sequences, then connected that with site and platform ownership and partnerships, as well as site design and other factors.
17h ago sciencedaily.com
Podcast: How online misinformation murdered the truth
With days still to go before the US presidential election, early voting has already topped half of all votes cast in the 2016 election, and every indication is that the electorate is energized. It makes sense, then, that in this heavily contested, highly polarized political environment (in the midst of a raging pandemic, no less), disinformation…
17h ago technologyreview.com
LIGO and Virgo announce 39 new gravitational wave discoveries during first half of third observing run
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration released a catalog of results from the first half of its third observing run (O3a), and scientists have detected more than three times as many gravitational waves than the first two runs combined. Gravitational waves were first detected in 2015 and are ripples in time and space produced by merging black holes and/or neutron stars. Several researchers from Rochester Institute of Technology's Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation (CCRG) were heavily involved in analyzing the gravitational waves and understanding their significance.
17h ago phys.org
Probing water for an electrifying cause
An experiment, elegant in its simplicity, helps explain why water becomes electrified when it touches hydrophobic surfaces.
18h ago phys.org
New study on the impact of digitalization—how does 5G affect the climate?
With the ever-increasing digitalization of our society, the question arises as to what potential this digital change has for climate protection. On behalf of the business association swisscleantech and the mobile phone operator Swisscom, a team of researchers from the University of Zurich and Empa has analyzed the effects of the 5G mobile phone standard on greenhouse gas emissions. The team concludes that, with an assumed eightfold increase in future data traffic, 5G technology will be more efficient and enable innovative applications, such as flexible working, a smart grid or precision agriculture, thereby helping to reduce CO2 emissions. Today, the study authors will present their results to the parliamentary groups Cleantech and Digital Sustainability in Bern.
18h ago phys.org
Measuring the expansion of the universe: The importance of measuring velocity
Ever since the astronomer Edwin Hubble demonstrated that the further apart two galaxies are, the faster they move away from each other, researchers have measured the expansion rate of the universe (the Hubble constant) and the history of this expansion. Recently, a new puzzle has emerged, as there seems to be a discrepancy between measurements of this expansion using radiation in the early universe and using nearby objects. Researchers from the Cosmic Dawn Center, at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have now contributed to this debate by focusing on velocity measurements. The result has been published in Astrophysical Journal.
18h ago phys.org
How star formation is 'quenched' in galaxies
Galaxies die quickly—that is the conclusion of a new study that examines the mechanism that switches galaxies from an active star-forming phase to one of quiescence.
18h ago phys.org
Assessing the viability of small modular nuclear reactors
Small modular nuclear reactors could provide nuclear power to small communities and rural areas currently served by environmentally damaging fossil fuel energy-sources. Assessing the potential of these reactors means keeping one eye on the past, with another fixed firmly in thefuture.
18h ago phys.org
An early dark energy model could solve an expanding cosmological conundrum
Much mystery surrounds dark energy and the cosmological constant, the proxies used to explain the accelerating expansion of the Universe. New research suggests that an early model of dark energy presents a competing theory that offers all the benefits of current models without the baggage that comes associated with the cosmological constant.
18h ago phys.org
Better thermoelectric properties achieved in n-type composite
Recently, a research team from the Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science showed a way to achieve high thermoelectric properties in n-type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 (BTS).
18h ago phys.org
Visible light-induced bifunctional rhodium catalysis developed for decarbonylative coupling of imides with alkynes
Carbonyl groups are ubiquitous in pharmaceuticals, natural products, and agricultural chemicals, especially amides. Transition metal-catalyzed decarbonylation offers a distinct synthetic strategy for new chemical bond formation and carbonyl groups transformation. However, the π-backbonding between CO π* orbitals and metal center d-orbitals impedes ligand dissociation to regenerate catalyst under mild condition.
18h ago phys.org
Fluorophore's electron deficiency influences recognition performance of near-infrared fluorescent probes
Glutathione S-transferases (GST) is one of the most important phase II detoxification enzymes. It achieves detoxification by catalyzing the nucleophilic attack of glutathione (GSH) on the electrophilic center of the target substrate, increasing its hydrophilicity to facilitate its transportation and exocytosis.
18h ago phys.org
Researchers find new distinct species in Chaozhou, Guangdong Province
In April 2019, researchers from the South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences conducted an investigation in Chaozhou, Guangdong Province, and they introduced several plants to SCBG for cultivation. After months of cultivation, they finally blossomed and fruited in December 2019.
18h ago phys.org
Soot particles influence global warming more than previously assumed
A team of researchers from ETH Zurich has for the first time used simulations on the CSCS supercomputer Piz Daint to investigate how certain aging mechanisms of soot particles in the atmosphere affect cloud formation. The results show that the influence of ozone and sulfuric acid on soot aging alters cloud formation and, ultimately, the climate.
18h ago phys.org
Researchers form ultra-strong coupling between photons and atoms
ITMO University researchers have demonstrated that individual atoms can be transformed into polaritons—quantum particles that are a mixture of matter and light, which are transmitted via optical fibers. In this new state of matter, photons and atoms form ultra-strong coupling for the first time. The results of this research can be used to control the properties of light and matter and to create quantum memory. The paper is published in Physical Review Letters.
18h ago phys.org
World's record entanglement storage sets up a milestone for Quantum Internet Alliance
Researchers from Sorbonne University in Paris have achieved a highly efficient transfer of quantum entanglement into and out of two quantum memory devices. This achievement brings a key ingredient for the scalability of a future quantum internet.
18h ago phys.org
Researchers develop new gelatin microcarrier for cell production
Researchers from the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), MIT's research enterprise in Singapore, have developed a novel microcarrier for large-scale cell production and expansion that offers higher yield and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional methods, and reduces steps required in the cell retrieval process. Microcarriers are particles used in bioreactor-based cell manufacturing of anchorage-dependent cells.
18h ago phys.org
Large losses of ammonium-nitrogen from a rice ecosystem under elevated carbon dioxide
Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the global climate has undergone dramatic changes as human activities have continued to stimulate the consumption of fossil fuels, accelerate the pace of deforestation and boost the demand for synthetic ammonia, thereby contributing to the constant increase in greenhouse gas emissions and changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. On the one hand, global climate change has caused glaciers to melt, sea levels to rise and extreme weather to occur more frequently, thus posing a severe threat to the ecosystems on which human life depends; on the other hand, climate change may profoundly alter the structure and function of ecosystems, which will in turn produce further effects on climate change.
18h ago phys.org
Why Hatred and 'Othering' of Political Foes Has Spiked to Extreme Levels
The new political polarization casts rivals as alien, unlikable and morally contemptible -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
18h ago scientificamerican.com
Study looks into the connection between religion and equal pay
In a new study published in the Academy of Management Journal by Traci Sitzmann, an Associate Professor at the University of Colorado Denver Business School, and Elizabeth Campbell, an Assistant Professor at the University of Minnesota, provide empirical evidence and an explanation into why religion perpetuates the gender wage gap.
18h ago phys.org
Bioenergy research team sequences miscanthus genome
An international research team has sequenced the full genome of an ornamental variety of miscanthus, a wild perennial grass emerging as a prime candidate for sustainable bioenergy crops.
18h ago phys.org
Radical diagnostic could save millions of people at risk of dying from blood loss
Engineers at Monash University in Australia have developed a fast, portable and cheap diagnostic that can help deliver urgent treatment to people at risk of dying from rapid blood loss.
18h ago phys.org
How Twitter takes votes away from Trump but not from Republicans
A popular narrative holds that social media network Twitter influenced the outcome of the 2016 presidential elections by helping Republican candidate Donald Trump spread partisan content and misinformation. In a recent interview with CBS News, Trump himself stated he "would not be here without social media."
18h ago phys.org
Scientists launch quest to develop quantum sensors for probing quantum materials
When it comes to fully understanding the hidden secrets of quantum materials, it takes one to know one, scientists say: Only tools that also operate on quantum principles can get us there.
18h ago phys.org
To see what makes AI hard to use, ask it to write a pop song
Welcome home welcome home oh oh oh the world is beautiful the world. They’re not the most catchy lyrics. But after I’ve listened to “Beautiful the World” half a dozen times, the chorus is stuck in my head and my foot is tapping. Not bad for a melody generated by an AI trained on a…
18h ago technologyreview.com
Asteroid Ryugu shaken by Hayabusa2's impactor
Hayabusa2 mission members discovered more than 200 boulders, which either newly appeared or moved as a result of the artificial impact crater created by the Japanese spacecraft's Small Carry-on Impactor. Boulders were disturbed within a 30m radius from the impact crater center- providing important insight into asteroids' resurfacing processes.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
PFAS: These 'forever chemicals' are highly toxic, under-studied, and largely unregulated
Per-/poly-fluroalkyl substances, or PFAS, are everywhere. They are used in firefighting foam, car wax, and even fast-food wrappers. They're one of the most toxic substances ever identified -- harmful at concentrations in the parts per trillion -- yet very little is known about them.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Hubble finds 'Greater Pumpkin' galaxy pair
Sorry Charlie Brown, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is taking a peek at what might best be described as the "Greater Pumpkin," that looks like a Halloween decoration tucked away in a patch of sky cluttered with stars. What looks like two glowing eyes and a crooked carved smile is a snapshot of the early stages of a collision between two galaxies. The entire view is nearly 109,000 light-years across, approximately the diameter of our Milky Way.
19h ago phys.org
Trust levels in AI predicted by people's relationship style
Relationship psychologists have shown that people's trust in artificial intelligence (AI) is tied to their relationship or attachment style.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Misleading mulch: Researchers find contents of mulch bags do not match claims
Your bag of mulch may not be what you think it is. In a new study, researchers found that some bags labeled as 'cypress' contain only 50% cypress, while other bags contained no cypress at all.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Genomic study reveals role for hypothalamus in inflammatory bowel disease
Using sophisticated 3D genomic mapping and integrating with public data resulting from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), researchers have found significant genetic correlations between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and stress and depression.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Neutrons make structural changes in molecular brushes visible
They look like microscopic bottle brushes: Polymers with a backbone and tufts of side arms. This molecular design gives them unusual abilities: For example, they can bind active agents and release them again when the temperature changes. With the help of neutrons, a research team has now succeeded to unveil the changes in the internal structure in course of the process.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Decades-long effort revives ancient oak woodland
Vestal Grove in Cook County, Illinois, looks nothing like the scrubby, buckthorn-choked tangle that first confronted restoration ecologists 37 years ago. Thanks to the efforts of a dedicated team that focused on rooting up invasive plants and periodically burning, seeding native plants and culling deer, the forest again resembles its ancient self, researchers report.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Identifying biomolecule fragments in ionizing radiation
Researchers define for the first time the precise exact ranges in which positively and negatively charged fragments can be produced when living cells are bombarded with fast, heavy ions.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Predictive model reveals function of promising energy harvester device
A small energy harvesting device that can transform subtle mechanical vibrations into electrical energy could be used to power wireless sensors and actuators for use in anything from temperature and occupancy monitoring in smart environments, to biosensing within the human body. Engineers have developed a predictive model for such a device, which will allow researchers to better understand and optimize its functionalities.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Copolymer helps remove pervasive PFAS toxins from environment
Researchers have demonstrated that they can attract, capture and destroy PFAS - a group of federally regulated substances found in everything from nonstick coatings to shampoo and nicknamed 'the forever chemicals' due to their persistence in the natural environment.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Buzz kill: Ogre-faced spiders 'hear' airborne prey with their legs
In the dark of night, ogre-faced spiders with dominating big eyes dangle from a silk frame to cast a web and capture their ground prey. But these spiders also can capture insects flying behind them with precision, and scientists have now confirmed how.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
How the immune system deals with the gut's plethora of microbes
New research suggests that our immune system may play an active role in shaping the digestive-tract flora, which is tightly linked to health and disease.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Where were Jupiter and Saturn born?
New work reveals the likely original locations of Saturn and Jupiter. These findings refine our understanding of the forces that determined our Solar System's unusual architecture, including the ejection of an additional planet between Saturn and Uranus, ensuring that only small, rocky planets, like Earth, formed inward of Jupiter.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Priming the immune system to attack cancer
New research showed how immune 'training' transforms innate immune cells to target tumors. The findings could inform new approaches to cancer immunotherapy or even strategies for preventing tumor growth.
19h ago sciencedaily.com
Where were Jupiter and Saturn born?
New work led by Carnegie's Matt Clement reveals the likely original locations of Saturn and Jupiter. These findings refine our understanding of the forces that determined our Solar System's unusual architecture, including the ejection of an additional planet between Saturn and Uranus, ensuring that only small, rocky planets, like Earth, formed inward of Jupiter.
19h ago phys.org
Neutrons make structural changes in molecular brushes visible
They look like microscopic bottle brushes: Polymers with a backbone and tufts of side arms. This molecular design gives them unusual abilities: For example, they can bind active agents and release them again when the temperature changes. With the help of neutrons, a research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now succeeded to unveil the changes in the internal structure in course of the process.
19h ago phys.org
'Lazy use' of term populist has helped to legitimize far-right politics
In 2017 the term 'populism' made 'Word of the Year' according to The Cambridge Dictionary for its ubiquitous use across media headlines, in political speeches, campaigns, as well as across numerous academic publications and conferences.
19h ago phys.org
Identifying biomolecule fragments in ionising radiation
When living cells are bombarded with fast, heavy ions, their interactions with water molecules can produce randomly scattered 'secondary' electrons with a wide range of energies. These electrons can then go on to trigger potentially damaging reactions in nearby biological molecules, producing electrically charged fragments. So far, however, researchers have yet to determine the precise energies at which secondary electrons produce certain fragments. In a new study published in EPJ D, researchers in Japan led by Hidetsugu Tsuchida at Kyoto University define for the first time the precise exact ranges in which positively and negatively charged fragments can be produced.
19h ago phys.org
Study reveals robust performance in aged detonator explosive
In a large, statistically significant, one-of-a-kind study, researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have confirmed that the explosive called PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate), stabilized with a polysaccharide coating, is resistant to changes in particle shape, size, and structure that can degrade detonator performance over time. The benefits of polysaccharide coating have long been known and studied by Los Alamos energetic material scientists.
19h ago phys.org
Indonesian activists slam 'Jurassic Park' plan for Komodo dragon habitat
Indonesian conservationists have slammed plans to turn the home of endangered Komodo dragons into a Jurassic Park-style attraction, after a viral photo showing one of the giant reptiles sparked an online backlash over the development.
19h ago phys.org
A new method to measure optical absorption in semiconductor crystals
Tohoku University researchers have revealed more details about omnidirectional photoluminescence (ODPL) spectroscopy—a method for probing semiconducting crystals with light to detect defects and impurities.
19h ago phys.org
Big data, machine learning shed light on Asian reforestation successes
Since carbon sequestration is such an important factor for mitigating climate change, it's critical to understand the efficacy of reforestation efforts and develop solid estimates of forest carbon storage capacity. However, measuring forest properties can be difficult, especially in places that aren't easily reachable.
19h ago phys.org
'Moderate to strong' La Nina this year: UN
Global temperatures boosted by climate change will still be higher than usual despite the cooling effect of a "moderate to strong" La Nina weather phenomenon, the UN said Thursday.
19h ago phys.org
Lab tests show risks of using CRISPR gene editing on embryos
A lab experiment aimed at fixing defective DNA in human embryos shows what can go wrong with this type of gene editing and why leading scientists say it's too unsafe to try. In more than half of the cases, the editing caused unintended changes, such as loss of an entire chromosome or big chunks of it.
19h ago phys.org
Chickens to be culled after bird flu found on Dutch farm
More than 35,000 chickens are to be culled at a Dutch farm after a highly pathogenic strain of bird flu was discovered there, the agriculture ministry announced Thursday.
19h ago phys.org
Nature loss means deadlier future pandemics, UN warns
Future pandemics will happen more often, kill more people and wreak even worse damage to the global economy than Covid-19 without a fundamental shift in how humans treat nature, the United Nations' biodiversity panel said Thursday.
19h ago phys.org
Misleading mulch: Researchers find contents of mulch bags do not match claims
Your bag of mulch may not be what you think it is. In a new study, researchers at Penn State found that some bags labeled as "cypress" contain only 50% cypress, while other bags contained no cypress at all.
20h ago phys.org
Potential impact of COVID-19 school closures on academic achievement
A study published today in Educational Researcher, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association, provides preliminary projections of the impact of COVID-19-related school closures in spring 2020 on student learning. The study authors found that compared to a typical year, students likely did not gain as much academically during the truncated 2019-20 school year and likely lost more of those gains due to extended time out of school.
20h ago phys.org
Decades-long effort revives ancient oak woodland
Vestal Grove in the Somme Prairie Grove forest preserve in Cook County, Illinois, looks nothing like the scrubby, buckthorn-choked tangle that confronted restoration ecologists 37 years ago. Thanks to the efforts of a dedicated team that focused on rooting up invasive plants and periodically burning, seeding native plants and culling deer, the forest again resembles its ancient self, researchers report in the journal PLOS ONE.
20h ago phys.org
Voter participation predicts compliance with social distancing
Americans who vote are more likely to practice social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic than people with a lower sense of civic duty—regardless of political affiliation, according to a new study involving Washington University in St. Louis.
20h ago phys.org