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Small and isolated habitat patches crucial to species survival
Small, local patches of habitat could be playing a much bigger role in conserving biodiversity than you think, according to new research.
12/11/2018 phys.org
Lifespan extension at low temperatures is genetically controlled, study suggests
Why do we age? Despite more than a century of research (and a vast industry of youth-promising products), what causes our cells and organs to deteriorate with age is still unknown.
12/11/2018 phys.org
Trees can help mitigate ammonia emissions from farming
A new online calculator and guidance has been developed to help farmers and others to design woodlands to capture airborne ammonia and so reduce air pollution.
12/11/2018 phys.org
Increased risk for breast cancer after childbirth may last more than 20 years
The increased risk for breast cancer that occurs after childbirth can last more than 20 years. The risk may be enhanced when a woman is older at first birth or has a family history of breast cancer, and is not mitigated by breastfeeding.
8h ago sciencedaily.com
Lifespan extension at low temperatures is genetically controlled
A new study indicates that lifespan extension at lower temperatures is not just a matter of turning down the thermostat: it's under active genetic control.
8h ago sciencedaily.com
Small and isolated habitat patches crucial to species survival
Small, local patches of habitat could be playing a much bigger role in conserving biodiversity than you think, according to new research.
8h ago sciencedaily.com
Reducing variations in feeding practices and fortifying breast milk helps micro-preemies grow
Standardizing feeding practices, including the timing for fortifying breast milk and formula with essential elements like zinc and protein, improves growth trends for the tiniest preterm infants, according to new research.
8h ago sciencedaily.com
Ocean fertilization by unusual microbes extends to frigid waters of Arctic Ocean
Microbes that provide natural fertilizer to the oceans by 'fixing' nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form useable by other organisms are active in the cold waters of the Bering and Chukchi Seas.
8h ago sciencedaily.com
New study finds bias against women and girls when intellectual ability is sought
A new study finds bias against both women and girls for jobs or activities requiring intellectual ability. The research underscores the pervasiveness of gender bias, held even among females, in both adults and young children.
8h ago sciencedaily.com
Shape-shifting origami could help antenna systems adapt on the fly
Researchers have devised a method for using an origami-based structure to create radio frequency filters that have adjustable dimensions, enabling the devices to change which signals they block throughout a large range of frequencies.
8h ago sciencedaily.com
Rapid genetic evolution linked to lighter skin pigmentation
The gene that causes lighter skin pigmentation, SLC24A5, was introduced from eastern African to southern African populations just 2,000 years ago. Strong positive selection caused this gene to rise in frequency among some KhoeSan populations.
8h ago sciencedaily.com
Addressing research gaps could help with development of disability-inclusive workplaces
Filling key gaps in the research and understanding of the treatment of people with disabilities in the workplace could help improve employee success on the job and develop more disability-inclusive workplaces.
8h ago sciencedaily.com
New bug prompts earlier end to Google+ social network
Google said Monday it will close the consumer version of its online social network sooner than originally planned due to the discovery of a new software bug.
9h ago phys.org
Rapid genetic evolution linked to lighter skin pigmentation in a southern African population
Populations of indigenous people in southern Africa carry a gene that causes lighter skin, and scientists have now identified the rapid evolution of this gene in recent human history.
9h ago phys.org
Research shows journalists can restore media trust
In a first-of-its-kind study from LSU's Manship School of Mass Communication, researchers discovered journalists can increase media trust by speaking out in defense of their profession, while also doing more fact checking. Contrary to long-established practices in which journalists traditionally ignore attacks against their profession's credibility, Ray Pingree, Doris Westmoreland Darden Professor, and his team found that the combination of fact checking and defending journalism had positive effects, but fact checking alone did not. This combination increased trust in and use of mainstream news, while also increasing confidence in the existence and attainability of facts in politics.
9h ago phys.org
Stanford lab explores experiments in universal basic income
As officials in several U.S. cities consider experimenting with universal basic income, a Stanford lab aims to educate policymakers and the public about the latest research on what happens when people receive unconditional cash on a regular basis.
9h ago phys.org
How will the winds of climate change affect migratory birds?
Under future climate scenarios, changing winds may make it harder for North American birds to migrate southward in the autumn, but make it easier for them to come back north in the spring. Researchers from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology came to this conclusion using data from 143 weather radar stations to estimate the altitude, density, and direction birds took during spring and autumn migrations over several years. They also extracted wind data from 28 different climate change projections in the most recent report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Their findings were published today in the journal Global Change Biology.
9h ago phys.org
OSIRIS-REx discovers water on asteroid, confirms Bennu as excellent mission target
From August through early December, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft aimed three of its science instruments toward Bennu and began making the mission's first observations of the asteroid. During this period, the spacecraft traveled the last 1.4 million miles (2.2 million km) of its outbound journey to arrive at a spot 12 miles (19 km) from Bennu on Dec. 3. The science obtained from these initial observations confirmed many of the mission team's ground-based observations of Bennu and revealed several new surprises.
9h ago phys.org
Sprayable gel could help the body fight off cancer after surgery
Many people who are diagnosed with cancer will undergo some type of surgery to treat their disease—almost 95 percent of people with early-diagnosed breast cancer will require surgery and it's often the first line of treatment for people with brain tumors, for example. But despite improvements in surgical techniques over the past decade, the cancer often comes back after the procedure.
9h ago phys.org
Inequality in homicide rates in Chicago neighborhoods increased over 20-year period
The United States has experienced an unprecedented decline in violent crime over the last two decades (1990-2010); however, violent crime remains stubbornly concentrated in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. This certainly rings true in Chicago.
9h ago phys.org
How will the winds of climate change affect migratory birds?
Under future climate scenarios, changing winds may make it harder for North American birds to migrate southward in the autumn, but make it easier for them to come back north in the spring. Researchers came to this conclusion using data from 143 weather radar stations to estimate the altitude, density, and direction birds took during spring and autumn migrations over several years.
10h ago sciencedaily.com
Regrowing damaged nerves hinges on shutting down key genes
Neurons in the brain and spinal cord don't grow back after injury, unlike those in the rest of the body. Now, researchers have identified some of the key steps taken by nerves in the legs as they regenerate. The findings lay out a path that spinal cord neurons might be able to follow -- potentially leading to improved recovery for people paralyzed by spinal cord injuries.
10h ago sciencedaily.com
Humans may be reversing the climate clock, by 50 million years
Our future on Earth may also be our past. Researchers show that humans are reversing a long-term cooling trend tracing back at least 50 million years. And it's taken just two centuries.
10h ago sciencedaily.com
'Dropout' rate for academic scientists has risen sharply in past 50 years, study finds
An analysis has found that half the people pursuing scientific careers at institutions of higher education will depart the field after five years -- a sharp contrast compared to 50 years ago.
10h ago sciencedaily.com
Water found on asteroid, confirming Bennu as excellent mission target
Spectral observations made by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft identified hydrated minerals across the asteroid, confirming that Bennu, a remnant from early in the formation of the solar system, is an excellent specimen for the OSIRIS-REx mission to study the composition of primitive volatiles and organics.
10h ago sciencedaily.com
Bioenergy crops could be as bad for biodiversity as climate change
A large scale expansion in bioenergy crop production could be just as detrimental to biodiversity as climate change itself, according to new research.
10h ago phys.org
'Dropout' rate for academic scientists has risen sharply in past 50 years, study finds
Half of the people pursuing careers as scientists at higher education institutions will drop out of the field after five years, according to a new analysis from researchers at Indiana University Bloomington.
10h ago phys.org
Ocean fertilization by unusual microbes extends to frigid waters of Arctic Ocean
Microbes that provide natural fertilizer to the oceans by "fixing" nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form useable by other organisms were once thought to be limited to warm tropical and subtropical waters. Now, however, researchers have documented nitrogen fixation by an unusual type of cyanobacteria in the cold waters of the Bering and Chukchi Seas.
10h ago phys.org
Humans may be reversing the climate clock, by 50 million years
Our future on Earth may also be our past. In a study published Monday (Dec. 10, 2018) in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers show that humans are reversing a long-term cooling trend tracing back at least 50 million years. And it's taken just two centuries.
10h ago phys.org
Smelling the forest not the trees: Why animals are better at sniffing complex smells
Animals are much better at smelling a complex 'soup' of odorants rather than a single pure ingredient, a new study has revealed.
10h ago sciencedaily.com
Key cellular mechanism that triggers pneumonia in humans
Researchers have demonstrated that influenza virus impairs the immune response to pneumococcus, especially monocyte activity.
10h ago sciencedaily.com
Millions of low-risk people with diabetes may be testing their blood sugar too often
For people with Type 2 diabetes, testing blood sugar levels becomes part of everyday life. But a new study suggests that some of them test more often than they need to. Fourteen percent of people with Type 2 diabetes who don't require insulin are buying enough test strips to test their blood sugar two or more times a day -- when they don't need to test nearly that frequently according to medical guidelines.
10h ago sciencedaily.com
Your brain on imagination: It's a lot like reality, study shows
New brain imaging research shows that imagining a threat lights up similar regions as experiencing it does. It suggests imagination can be a powerful tool in overcoming phobias or post traumatic stress.
10h ago sciencedaily.com
Optimal blood pressure treatment for stroke patients
Aggressive treatment of hypertension in stroke patients could do more harm than good in the long term, according to a new study.
11h ago sciencedaily.com
Sprayable gel could help the body fight off cancer after surgery
A research team has developed a spray gel embedded with immune-boosting drugs that could help lower the risk of cancer recurrence after surgery.
11h ago sciencedaily.com
Some brain tumors may respond to immunotherapy
A new study suggests that a slow-growing brain tumor arising in patients affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) may be vulnerable to immunotherapy, which gives the immune system a boost in fighting cancer.
11h ago sciencedaily.com
Topological material switched off and on for the first time
A new study represents a significant advance in topological transistors and beyond-CMOS electronics. First time that the topological state in a topological insulator has been switched on and off using an electric field. Researchers proved this is possible at room temperature, which is necessary for any viable replacement to CMOS technology in everyday applications.
11h ago sciencedaily.com
Voyager 2 has finally entered interstellar space, more than 40 years after its launch
11h ago technologyreview.com
Smelling the forest not the trees: Why animals are better at sniffing complex smells
Animals are much better at smelling a complex "soup" of odorants rather than a single pure ingredient, a new study by the University of Sussex has revealed.
11h ago phys.org
Dopamine's yin-yang personality: It's an upper and a downer
Dopamine has a reputation as the key player in the brain's reward circuits, making us seek out pleasurable experiences, but growing evidence points to a multipronged role for the neurotransmitter. In particular, dopamine may also reinforce avoidance of painful experiences. Researchers have now mapped dopamine neurons in the brain with fiber photometry and discovered two parallel dopamine circuits driving attractive and aversive reinforcement learning and motivation.
11h ago sciencedaily.com
Voyager 2 Spacecraft Enters Interstellar Space
After a journey of more than four decades, Voyager 2 has passed beyond the sun’s influence -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
12h ago scientificamerican.com
Tariffs prompt GoPro to pull manufacturing from China
GoPro on Monday announced plans to pull production of US-bound cameras out of China to avoid tariffs that could push up its prices in a fiercely competitive market.
13h ago phys.org
Brazil court overturns suspension of Boeing-Embraer tie-up
An appeals court in Brazil on Monday overturned an order blocking a proposed $4.75 billion tie-up between US aerospace giant Boeing and the civilian business of Brazilian plane-maker Embraer.
13h ago phys.org
Verizon cuts 10,000 workers through buyouts as part of restructuring
US telecomm group Verizon announced Monday it would slash its workforce through a voluntary buyout plan as the company strives to better position itself for the coming of new cellular technology.
13h ago phys.org
Researchers image atomic structure of important immune regulator
A new study by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital provides a biophysical and structural assessment of a critical immune regulating protein called human T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing protein-3 (hTIM-3). Understanding the atomic structure of hTIM-3 provides new insights for targeting this protein for numerous cancer and autoimmune therapeutics currently under clinical development. The findings of this study were published online in Scientific Reports on Nov. 30.
13h ago phys.org
Editing consciousness: How bereaved people control their thoughts without knowing it
A new study shows that avoidant grievers unconsciously monitor and block the contents of their mind-wandering, a discovery that could lead to more effective psychiatric treatment for bereaved people. The researchers, who studied 29 bereaved subjects, are the first to show how this unconscious thought suppression occurs.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Physicist creates tiny sensors to assist in cancer detection
A physicist hopes to improve cancer detection with a new and novel class of nanomaterials.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Key players in the marine nitrogen cycle can utilize cyanate and urea
The ammonia oxidizing archaea, or Thaumarchaeota, are amongst the most abundant marine microorganisms. Yet, we are still discovering which factors allow them to thrive in the ocean: A new publication reveals that marine Thaumarchaeota have a broader metabolism than previously thought.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Personalized medicine tool for inherited colorectal cancer syndrome
An international team of researchers has developed, calibrated, and validated a novel tool for identifying the genetic changes in Lynch syndrome genes that are likely to be responsible for causing symptoms of the disease.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Providers show interest in prescribing therapeutic cannabinoids
Researchers have found many dermatologists are interested in learning more about and recommending therapeutic cannabinoids to their patients.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Imaging atomic structure of important immune regulator
A new study provides a biophysical and structural assessment of a critical immune regulating protein called human T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing protein-3 (hTIM-3). Understanding the atomic structure of hTIM-3 provides new insights for targeting this protein for numerous cancer and autoimmune therapeutics currently under clinical development.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Two compounds in coffee may team up to fight Parkinson's
Scientists have found a compound in coffee that may team up with caffeine to fight Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia -- two progressive and currently incurable diseases associated with brain degeneration.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Researchers find unexpected impact of hurricanes on Puerto Rico's watershed
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have found unprecedentedly high levels of nitrate, an essential plant nutrient, in streams and watersheds of Puerto Rico for a year after two consecutive major hurricanes in 2017. This high amount of nitrate may have important climate change implications that could harm forest recovery and threaten ecosystems along Puerto Rico's coastline by escalating algal blooms and dead zones.
13h ago phys.org
NASA-NOAA satellite sees Tropical Cyclone Owen's remnants reorganizing
The remnants of Tropical Cyclone have been lingering in the Southern Pacific Ocean for days. On Dec. 10, the storm finally appeared more organized on satellite imagery providing forecasters with a strong indication that it may be reborn as a tropical cyclone. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Gulf of Carpentaria and saw the storm.
13h ago phys.org
Solar activity research provides insight into sun's past, future
Scientists have developed a new technique for looking at historic solar data to distinguish trustworthy observations from those that should be used with care. This work is critical to understanding the sun's past and future as well as whether solar activity plays a role in climate change.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Evidence for carbon-rich surface on Ceres
Astronomers have concluded that the surface of dwarf planet Ceres is rich in organic matter. Data from NASA's Dawn spacecraft indicate that Ceres's surface may contain several times the concentration of carbon than is present in the most carbon-rich, primitive meteorites found on Earth.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Topological matters: Toward a new kind of transistor
An experiment has demonstrated, for the first time, electronic switching in an exotic, ultrathin material that can carry a charge with nearly zero loss at room temperature. Researchers demonstrated this switching when subjecting the material to a low-current electric field.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Tiny droplets of early universe matter created
Researchers have created tiny droplets of the ultra-hot matter that once filled the early universe, forming three distinct shapes and sizes: circles, ellipses and triangles.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Novel laser technology for microchip-size chemical sensors
A special laser system has been developed, using two slightly different frequency combs. This allows for chemical analysis on tiny spaces -- it is a millimeter-format chemistry lab. With this new patent-pending technology, frequency combs can be created on a single chip in a very simple and robust manner.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Females prefer city frogs' tunes
Urban sophistication has real sex appeal -- at least if you're a Central American amphibian. Male frogs in cities are more attractive to females than their forest-frog counterparts, according to a new study.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Early career choices appear to influence personality
In the state of Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, 16-year-old students in middle-track schools decide whether to stay in school to pursue an academic career or enroll in a vocational training program. A new study offers evidence that the path they choose influences their personality years later.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Unexpected impact of hurricanes on Puerto Rico's watershed
Researchers have found unprecedentedly high levels of nitrate, an essential plant nutrient, in streams and watersheds of Puerto Rico for a year after two consecutive major hurricanes in 2017. This high amount of nitrate may have important climate change implications that could harm forest recovery and threaten ecosystems along Puerto Rico's coastline by escalating algal blooms and dead zones.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Antenna evaluation method could help boost 5G network capacity and cut costs
Researchers have developed a method for evaluating and selecting optimal antenna designs for future fifth-generation (5G) cellphones, other wireless devices and base stations.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
Predicting leaky heart valves with 3D printing
Researchers have created a novel 3D printing workflow that allows cardiologists to evaluate how different valve sizes will interact with each patient's unique anatomy, before the medical procedure is actually performed. This protocol uses CT scan data to produce physical models of individual patients' aortic valves, in addition to a 'sizer' device to determine the perfect replacement valve size.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
A glimmer of hope for the world's coral reefs
The future of the world's coral reefs is uncertain, as the impact of global heating continues to escalate. However, according to a new study, the response of the Great Barrier Reef to extreme temperatures in 2017 was markedly different to one year earlier, following two back-to-back bouts of coral bleaching.
13h ago sciencedaily.com
NASA's Voyager 2 probe enters interstellar space
For the second time in history, a human-made object has reached the space between the stars. NASA's Voyager 2 probe now has exited the heliosphere -- the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the Sun.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
Social media tops print as news source for Americans: study
Social media has overtaken print newspapers as a news source for Americans, researchers said Monday, highlighting the growing importance of services such as Facebook and Twitter as well as the troubled state of legacy news organizations.
14h ago phys.org
NASA provides new look at Puerto Rico post-Hurricane Maria
When Hurricane Maria struck Puerto Rico head-on as a Category 4 storm with winds up to 155 miles per hour in September 2017, it damaged homes, flooded towns, devastated the island's forests and caused the longest electricity black-out in U.S. history.
14h ago phys.org
NIST's antenna evaluation method could help boost 5G network capacity and cut costs
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a method for evaluating and selecting optimal antenna designs for future fifth-generation (5G) cellphones, other wireless devices and base stations.
14h ago phys.org
Topological matters: Toward a new kind of transistor
Billions of tiny transistors supply the processing power in modern smartphones, controlling the flow of electrons with rapid on-and-off switching.
14h ago phys.org
Team finds evidence for carbon-rich surface on Ceres
A team led by Southwest Research Institute has concluded that the surface of dwarf planet Ceres is rich in organic matter. Data from NASA's Dawn spacecraft indicate that Ceres's surface may contain several times the concentration of carbon than is present in the most carbon-rich, primitive meteorites found on Earth.
14h ago phys.org
Physicists create tiny sensors to assist in cancer detection
A physicist in the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University hopes to improve cancer detection with a new and novel class of nanomaterials.
14h ago phys.org
How catnip makes the chemical that causes cats to go crazy
Researchers at John Innes Centre have shed light on how catnip—also known as catmint—produces the chemical that sends cats into a state of wanton abandon.
14h ago phys.org
Solar activity research provides insight into sun's past, future
Andrés Muñoz-Jaramillo of Southwest Research Institute and José Manuel Vaquero of the University of Extremadura have developed a new technique for looking at historic solar data to distinguish trustworthy observations from those that should be used with care. This work is critical to understanding the Sun's past and future as well as whether solar activity plays a role in climate change.
14h ago phys.org
A glimmer of hope for the world's coral reefs
The future of the world's coral reefs is uncertain, as the impact of global heating continues to escalate. However, according to a study published today in Nature Climate Change, the response of the Great Barrier Reef to extreme temperatures in 2017 was markedly different to one year earlier, following two back-to-back bouts of coral bleaching. Remarkably, corals that bleached and survived 2016 were more resistant in 2017 to a recurrence of hot conditions.
14h ago phys.org
Frog sex in the city: Urban tungara frogs are sexier than forest frogs
By 2050, almost 70 percent of the world's population will live in urban environments, according to the United Nations. But as cities spread, wild animals will also have to adapt. In Nature Ecology and Evolution, researchers working at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) report that male tungara frogs in Panama City put on sexier mating displays than frogs living in nearby tropical forests.
14h ago phys.org
Houses in hurricane strike zones are built back bigger
A study of hurricane-hit areas of the United States has revealed a trend of larger homes being built to replace smaller ones in the years following a storm.
14h ago phys.org
Compelling evidence for small drops of perfect fluid
Nuclear physicists analyzing data from the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)—a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research at Brookhaven National Laboratory—have published in the journal Nature Physics additional evidence that collisions of miniscule projectiles with gold nuclei create tiny specks of the perfect fluid that filled the early universe.
14h ago phys.org
Key players in the marine nitrogen cycle use cyanate and urea
The ammonia oxidizing archaea, or Thaumarchaeota, are among the most abundant marine microorganisms. Yet, scientists are still discovering which factors allow them to thrive in the ocean. A research team from the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen and the University of Vienna was now able to show that marine Thaumarchaeota have a broader metabolism than previously thought. The results are published in the journal Nature Microbiology.
14h ago phys.org
Strep bacteria compete for 'ownership' of human tissue
A well-accepted principle in the animal kingdom—from wasps to deer—is that creatures already occupying a habitat nearly always prevail over competitors from the same species that arrive later. Such infighting for the same territory may be deemed "wasteful" by nature.
14h ago phys.org
U.S. Stands with Russia and Saudi Arabia Against Climate Science
At a meeting to coordinate climate action, the nations thwarted recognition of a recent report expressing the urgency of reducing emissions -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
14h ago scientificamerican.com
Beyond the "Human" in Human Rights: The Universal Declaration at 70
Let us give fresh consideration to the moral status of animals, nature and machines -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
14h ago blogs.scientificamerican.com
Genetic study of epilepsy points to potential new therapies
The largest study of its kind, led by international researchers has discovered 11 new genes associated with epilepsy. It greatly advances knowledge of the underlying biological causes of epilepsy and may inform the development of new treatments for the condition.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
Scientists brew lava and blow it up to better understand volcanoes
What happens when lava and water meet? Explosive experiments with humanmade lava are helping to answer this important question. This long-term, ongoing study aims to shed light on the basic physics of lava-water interactions, which are common in nature but poorly understood.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
New light on blocking Shiga and ricin toxins -- And on an iconic biological process
Researchers, setting their sights on Shiga toxin (player in the current E. coli outbreak from romaine lettuce) and ricin (a bioterrorism agent), have now identified potential protective strategies. Their study also sheds new light on glycosylation, the attachment of sugars to large molecules, key to cells' ability to create more diverse molecules beyond what's encoded in the genome.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
How glial cells develop in the brain from neural precursor cells
A research team studied how glial cells develop in the brain from neural precursor cells. They discovered that differentiation involves three stages and that three proteins in the cell nucleus, so-called transcription factors, play a key role in organizing glia-specific transcription of the genes in the cell nucleus.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
New look at Puerto Rico post-Hurricane Maria
Two new research efforts delve into Hurricane Maria's far-reaching effects on the island's forests and on its residents' energy and electricity access.
14h ago sciencedaily.com
NASA's Voyager 2 probe enters interstellar space
For the second time in history, a human-made object has reached the space between the stars. NASA's Voyager 2 probe now has exited the heliosphere – the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the Sun.
14h ago phys.org
Scientists brew lava and blow it up to better understand volcanoes
What happens when lava and water meet? Explosive experiments with manmade lava are helping to answer this important question.
14h ago phys.org
China court bans iPhone sales in patent dispute: Qualcomm
A Chinese court ordered a ban in the country on iPhone sales in a patent dispute between US chipmaker Qualcomm and Apple, according to a Qualcomm statement Monday.
14h ago phys.org
New light on blocking Shiga and ricin toxins—And on an iconic biological process
Min Dong, Ph.D., and his lab are world experts in toxins and how to combat them. They've figured out how Clostridium difficile's most potent toxin gets into cells and zeroed in on the first new botulinum toxin identified since 1969. Now, setting their sights on Shiga and ricin toxins, they've not only identified new potential lines of defense, but also shed new light on a fundamental part of cell biology: glycosylation.
15h ago phys.org
Ozone depletion increases Antarctic snowfall, partially mitigates ice sheet loss
Ozone layer depletion has increased snowfall over Antarctica in recent decades, partially mitigating the ongoing loss of the continent's ice sheet mass, new University of Colorado Boulder research finds.
15h ago phys.org
Fraser River chinook critical to orcas are in steep decline, new research shows
Fraser River chinook, one of the most important food sources for southern resident killer whales, are in steep decline and should be listed for protection as an endangered species, a Canadian independent science committee said.
15h ago phys.org
'Carp cowboys' round up invasive Asian carp as Illinois, federal officials debate measures to protect Lake Michigan
On a bleak and biting December morning, a team of state-contracted commercial fishermen at Starved Rock Marina slipped into their waders, salted down their johnboats to protect against ice and launched onto the Illinois River.
15h ago phys.org
Cancer cells distinguished by artificial intelligence-based system
A research team has created a system that uses a convolutional neural network to learn the features distinguishing different cancer cells, based on images from a phase-contrast microscope. This system accurately differentiated human and mouse cancer cells, as well as their radioresistant clones. This novel approach can improve the speed and accuracy of cancer diagnosis by avoiding the laboriousness and potential errors associated with equivalent analyses by humans.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
Memory tests predict brain atrophy and Alzheimer's disease
Use of two episodic memory tests help in predicting brain atrophy and Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by a study. Researchers suggest that comprehensive use of memory tests could improve the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
Scientists discover how birds and dinosaurs evolved to dazzle with colourful displays
Iridescence is responsible for some of the most striking visual displays in the animal kingdom. Now, thanks to a new study of feathers from almost 100 modern bird species, scientists have gained new insights into how this color diversity evolved.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
Hair color gene study sheds new light on roots of redheads' locks
Scientists have discovered eight additional genes linked to red hair, helping to solve a mystery of how redheads inherit their flaming locks.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
Plants as antifungal factories
Researchers have developed a biotechnological tool to produce, in a very efficient manner, antifungal proteins in the leaves of the plant Nicotiana benthamiana. These proteins are promising biomolecules that could be used to develop new antifungals whose properties and mechanisms of action represent improvements on the existing ones, and which can be applied in diverse fields, including crop and postharvest protection and animal and human health.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
Ozone depletion increases Antarctic snowfall, partially mitigates ice sheet loss
Ozone layer depletion has increased snowfall over Antarctica in recent decades, partially mitigating the ongoing loss of the continent's ice sheet mass, new research finds.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
The fauna in the Antarctica is threatened by pathogens humans spread in polar latitudes
The fauna in the Antarctica could be in danger due the pathogens humans spread in places and research stations in the southern ocean.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
Proteins for making tough rubber
Inspired by nature, scientists have produced a synthetic analogue to vulcanized natural rubber. Their material is just as tough and durable as the original. They reveal the secret to their success: short protein chains attached to the side-chains of the polymer backbone ensure stable physical cross-linkage and give the material a ''self-reinforcing'' effect under strain. In contrast to conventional rubbers, it is much easier to recycle.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
New insights into childhood cancer
Peripheral nervous system tumors, known as neuroblastoma, are one of the most common types of childhood tumors. Researchers have now studied the genetic factors behind different tumor subtypes and their prognoses. Their findings enable clinicians to predict the precise clinical course of the disease, and to adapt their treatment regimens accordingly.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
New method to treat life-threatening heart arrhythmias in dogs
Researchers have developed a new treatment for dogs with a rare, but life-threatening, arrhythmia caused by atrioventricular accessory pathways (APs). The minimally invasive technique, which uses radiofrequencies, is modified from a human cardiology procedure and has a more than 95 percent success rate in treating dogs with this type of arrhythmia.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
Life in Deep Earth totals 15 to 23 billion tons of carbon -- hundreds of times more than humans
Barely living 'zombie' bacteria and other forms of life constitute an immense amount of carbon deep within Earth's subsurface -- 245 to 385 times greater than the carbon mass of all humans on the surface, according to Deep Carbon Observatory scientists nearing the end of a 10-year international collaboration to reveal Earth's innermost secrets.
15h ago sciencedaily.com
Underground life has a carbon mass hundreds of times larger than humans'
Microorganisms living underneath the surface of the earth have a total carbon mass of 15 to 23 billion tons, hundreds of times more than that of humans, according to findings announced by the Deep Carbon Observatory and coauthored by UT Professor of Microbiology Karen Lloyd.
15h ago phys.org
Grey nomad lifestyle provides a model for living remotely
Every other year, retired couple Jorg and Jan journey some 5,000 kilometres in their campervan from Port Fairy in southeastern Australia to Broome in the far northwest for a change of lifestyle and scenery. There they catch up with other couples from across the nation, who often converge on the beach for communal dinners. Jorg and Jan's break lasts several weeks.
15h ago phys.org
How the absence of blow flies overturned a wrongful conviction
On Jan. 2, 2018, Kirstin Blaise Lobato, who was charged and convicted of murder, walked free from a Nevada prison due entirely to forensic entomology.
15h ago phys.org
A minority of countries offer free early childhood education, researchers report
Numerous studies from countries around the globe have shown that education before primary school is associated with success in school. Despite this, few governments make pre-primary education available on a tuition-free basis for two or more years, according to a new study from the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health's WORLD Policy Analysis Center (WORLD).
15h ago phys.org
Online platform for carbon dioxide-free deliveries
City centres are becoming increasingly congested by traffic, many of which are delivery vehicles. An EU-funded project has developed a solution for delivering packages that reduces traffic and eliminates carbon dioxide (CO2) and other harmful emissions.
15h ago phys.org
Image: Dione and Rhea appear as one
Sometimes it's all about perspective. This very convincing image of a conjoined moon masquerading as a snowman is actually two separate Saturnian moons – Dione and Rhea – taken from such an angle by the international Cassini spacecraft that they appear as one.
16h ago phys.org
Nobel Peace winners urge global action vs. sexual violence
The Congolese doctor who shares this year's Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the use of rape and sexual violence as weapons of war on Monday called for strong international action against the abuse, including reparations for victims.
16h ago phys.org
Invasive species and habitat loss our biggest biodiversity threats
Invasive species and habitat loss are the biggest threats to Australian biodiversity, according to new research by the Threatened Species Recovery Hub in partnership with The University of Queensland.
16h ago phys.org
Using machine learning to design peptides
Scientists and engineers have long been interested in synthesizing peptides—chains of amino acids responsible for conducting many functions within cells—to both mimic nature and to perform new activities. A designed peptide, for example, could be a functional drug acting in certain areas in the body without degrading, a difficult task for many peptides.
16h ago phys.org
Prison sentences do not just penalise those behind walls
In reality many of the relatives of prisoners are also subjected to harsh penalties by the State. Innocent people, who do not deserve to be punished, but who nevertheless live in the shadow of a prison. Why have we chosen a penal system which impacts so harshly on families?
16h ago phys.org
Global warming today mirrors conditions leading to Earth's largest extinction event, study says
More than two-thirds of life on Earth died off some 252 million years ago, in the largest mass extinction event in Earth's history.
16h ago phys.org
Nanoglue can make composites several times tougher during dynamic loading
In a discovery that could pave the way for new materials and applications, materials scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have found that oscillating loads at certain frequencies can lead to several-fold increases in the strength of composites with an interface that is modified by a molecular layer of "nanoglue."
16h ago phys.org
Tiny Australian wallaby the last living link to extinct giant kangaroos
Scientists reveal that Australia's pint-sized banded hare-wallaby is the closest living relative of the giant short-faced kangaroos which roamed the continent for millions of years, but died out about 40,000 years ago.
16h ago sciencedaily.com
Researchers suggest 'Little Foot' is an entirely new species of early human
Several teams of researchers have announced that the skeletal remains of a hominin believed to have lived approximately 3.67 million years ago represent a new species of early human. The researchers report that the specimen, known as "Little Foot," has characteristics that make it unlike any other known species.
16h ago phys.org
New optical device brings quantum computing a step closer
An international team of researchers has taken a big step closer to creating an optical quantum computer, which has the potential to engineer new drugs and optimise energy-saving methods.
16h ago phys.org
Nanoglue can make composites several times tougher during dynamic loading
Materials scientists have found that oscillating loads at certain frequencies can lead to several-fold increases in the strength of composites with an interface that is modified by a molecular layer of 'nanoglue.'
16h ago sciencedaily.com
Undiplomatic immunity: Mutation causing arterial autoimmune disease revealed
Takayasu arteritis is an autoimmune disease resulting in chronic aortic inflammation leading to aneurysm or aortic regurgitation. Researchers showed that it is caused by MLX gene mutation. This mutation increased oxidative stress and inflammasome formation and activity, specifically in the aortic valves, explaining the inflammatory state and associated symptoms. This insight suggests the potential value of treating this disease with medicines effective against other conditions involving excessive inflammasome activation.
16h ago sciencedaily.com
Using machine learning to design peptides
Scientists have developed a way of finding optimal peptide sequences: using a machine-learning algorithm as a collaborator. The algorithm analyzes experimental data and offers suggestions on the next best sequence to try, creating a back-and-forth selection process that reduces time needed to find the optimal peptide. The results could provide a new framework for experiments across materials science and chemistry.
16h ago sciencedaily.com
Research brings traditional sustainable building material into 21st century
An international research project aiming to update an ancient, sustainable building material has succeeded in bringing it into line with modern thermal standards.
16h ago phys.org
How does cancer spread?
How does cancer spread? While studying human brain tumour cells, a team of scientists found some answers to this crucial, yet so far unanswered question. They looked at a gene called EGFRvIII, which is present in patients with glioblastoma -- a highly aggressive form of brain cancer that spreads quickly and that is difficult to treat.
16h ago sciencedaily.com
Cataclysmic variable ES Ceti has an accretion disk, study suggests
Astronomers have conducted spectroscopic observations of the cataclysmic variable ES Ceti, which resulted in uncovering important insights about gas emission from this object. The new findings, presented in a paper published November 29 on the arXiv pre-print server, suggest the presence of an accretion disk in this system.
16h ago phys.org