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Towards an 'orrery' for quantum gauge theory
Physicists have developed a new approach to couple quantized gauge fields to ultracold matter. The method might be the basis for a versatile platform to tackle problems ranging from condensed-matter to high-energy physics.
8/19/2019 sciencedaily.com
Drawing inspiration from natural marvels to make new materials
The shape-shifting bristle worm has the unique ability to extend its jaw outside of its mouth and ensnare surprised prey. The metal coordination chemistry that makes this natural wonder possible can also be the key to creating new materials for use in sensors, healthcare applications, and much more.
8/19/2019 sciencedaily.com
Biochemists discover new insights into what may go awry in brains of Alzheimer's patients
Three decades of research on Alzheimer's disease have not produced major treatment advances for patients. Researchers now report new insights that may lead to progress in fighting the devastating disease. They discovered beta amyloid has a specific amino acid that can form a kink, like a kink in a garden hose, creating a harmful molecular zipper and leading to the death of neurons.
8/19/2019 sciencedaily.com
Research using mechanics and physics could predict diseases that 'stress out' cells
Using ultrasonic tweezers, live imaging and a micro-mechanical substrate, researchers found energy patterns in cellular allostasis that could predict the presence of disease.
8/19/2019 sciencedaily.com
New lawsuit seeks protection zone for Northwest orcas
A new U.S. lawsuit filed Monday seeks to establish a whale protection zone for endangered orcas in the Pacific Northwest.
8/19/2019 phys.org
Team draws inspiration from natural marvels to make new materials
A tiny bristle worm, wriggling around the ocean, can extend its jaw outside its mouth to ensnare its prey. The worm's shape-shifting jaw, stiff at the base and flexible at the end, is made of one singular material containing the mineral zinc and the amino acid histidine, which together govern the joint's mechanical behavior through what is known as a metal coordination chemistry.
8/19/2019 phys.org
New planet discovered in orbit of young Milky Way star
A second planet has been discovered circling Beta Pictoris, a fledgling star in our own galaxy offering astronomers a rare glimpse of a planetary system in the making, according to a study published Monday.
24m ago phys.org
Comparing your house to your neighbors' can lead to dissatisfaction
Satisfaction with your home can depend on its size compared to your neighbors' homes, according to new Iowa State University research.
29m ago phys.org
New study offers roadmap for detecting changes in the ocean due to climate change
Sea temperature and ocean acidification have climbed during the last three decades to levels beyond what is expected due to natural variation alone, a new study led by Princeton researchers finds. Meanwhile other impacts from climate change, such as changes in the activity of ocean microbes that regulate the Earth's carbon and oxygen cycles, will take several more decades to a century to appear. The report was published Aug. 19 online in the journal Nature Climate Change.
29m ago phys.org
Global change is triggering an identity switch in grasslands
Since the first Homo sapiens emerged in Africa roughly 300,000 years ago, grasslands have sustained humanity and thousands of other species. But today, those grasslands are shifting beneath our feet. Global change—which includes climate change, pollution and other widespread environmental alterations—is transforming the plant species growing in them, and not always in the ways scientists expected, a new study published Monday revealed.
1h ago phys.org
Potential treatments for citrus greening
Over the course of 40 years, biologist Sharon Long has become an expert in symbiotic bacteria that help alfalfa grow. She has published over 150 papers on this one topic but when she realized her lab's decades of highly focused research could contribute to a solution for citrus greening—a disease that devastates citrus crops—she was inspired to go in a new direction.
1h ago phys.org
Common origin identified could bring tooth regeneration potential closer
A common origin shared by teeth and taste buds in a fish that has regenerative abilities has been identified by a team of researchers from the UK and the States. Regulated by the BMP signalling pathway, the results suggest that the oral organs have surprising regenerative capabilities and can be manipulated to express characteristics of different tissue types.
1h ago phys.org
Are attitudes contagious? Nonverbal messages
A new study examined whether people can acquire attitudes toward other individuals from the nonverbal signals that are directed toward them.
2h ago sciencedaily.com
Single protein plays important dual transport roles in the brain
Scientists report that halting production of synaptotagmin 17 (syt-17) blocks growth of axons. Equally significant, when cells made more syt-17, axon growth accelerated. A wide range of neurological conditions could benefit from the growth of axons, including spinal cord injuries and some neurodegenerative diseases.
2h ago sciencedaily.com
Possible new treatment strategy for lung cancer
It is estimated there will be roughly 228,000 new lung cancer cases this year, and nearly 30% of those patients will have mutations in the KRAS pathway. This type of mutation makes the cancer more aggressive and difficult to treat. Researchers are hoping to change that. They have now discovered a new treatment approach that may help this group of patients.
2h ago sciencedaily.com
How Smart Devices Can Help Solve the Challenge of Climate Change
They can help consumers be much more aware of—and aid them in reducing or changing—their energy use -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
2h ago blogs.scientificamerican.com
Need a mental break? Avoid your cellphone
Using a cellphone to take a break during mentally challenging tasks does not allow the brain to recharge effectively and may result in poorer performance, researchers found.
3h ago sciencedaily.com
Why there's a 'sweet spot' depth for underground magma chambers
Computer models show why eruptive magma chambers tend to reside between six and 10 kilometers underground.
3h ago sciencedaily.com
New artificial compound eye could improve 3D object tracking
A newly created biologically inspired compound eye is helping scientists understand how insects use their compound eyes to sense an object and its trajectory with such speed. The compound eye could also be used with a camera to create 3D location systems for robots, self-driving cars and unmanned aerial vehicles.
3h ago sciencedaily.com
Compound speeds sexual development and decline
Every day, people are exposed to myriad chemicals both natural and synthetic, some of which may affect human physical development. Researchers have discovered nacq#1, a natural compound produced by a soil roundworm that dramatically influences time to sexual maturity and lifespan in tiny amounts. Because nacq#1 and its related nuclear receptors are so similar between the worm and humans, miniscule amounts of small molecules could similarly impact human development and lifespan.
3h ago sciencedaily.com
Parent-targeted interventions in primary care improve parent-teen communication on alcohol and sex
New research shows that brief parent-targeted interventions in the primary care setting can increase communication between parents and their teens about sexual and alcohol-related behavior. This method may serve as an important strategy for parents to influence adolescent behaviors and health outcomes.
3h ago sciencedaily.com
Outer Banks wild horses let big white birds ride them for a good reason, expert says
The wild horses roaming North Carolina's Outer Banks are known for being unpredictable and even dangerous—and this reputation only adds to the mystery why they're often seen patiently giving rides to big, gawky birds.
3h ago phys.org
Heatwaves longer, more deadly even in a 2C world
Northern hemisphere summers will deliver dangerously longer heatwaves, droughts and bouts of rain even if humanity manages to cap global warming at two degrees Celsius, scientists said Monday.
3h ago phys.org
Researchers discover compound that speeds sexual development and decline
Every day, people are exposed to myriad chemicals, both natural and synthetic. Some of these compounds may affect human physical development, but testing them directly on people would be grossly unethical.
3h ago phys.org
Dog down: Effort helps emergency medical staff treat law enforcement K-9s
Recognizing a gap in care for law enforcement K-9s injured on the job, a team of veterinarians, emergency medical services experts and canine handlers has developed protocols for emergency medical service personnel who may be called upon to help treat and transport the injured dogs.
3h ago phys.org
Astronomers Spy a Black Hole Devouring a Neutron Star
If confirmed, the detection could be the first of its kind and would open new vistas on Einstein’s general theory of relativity and the physics of extreme matter -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
3h ago scientificamerican.com
Study investigates rural LBGTQ youth's motivations for participating in activism
While marriage equality continues to be a big win for the LGBTQ movement since its passage in the U.S. in 2015, many activists are concerned about what's next.
3h ago phys.org
Bottles made of lignocellulose, perfumes made from apples
Many companies are working on materials that would be as light and resistant as plastic but at the same time fully biodegradable. What if they could be made from... rubbish? A modern, ecological (waste-free—the conversion of raw material to product reaches 100%) and economical (does not require high temperatures or expensive catalysts) method of obtaining organic monomers is coming into being at the IPC PAS.
3h ago phys.org
Research using mechanics and physics could predict diseases that 'stress out' cells
Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering have discovered a new way to identify the state of individual cells by bringing principles of mechanical engineering and physics to bear on processes that are now well understood at the macro level, but not yet at the cellular level: how stressors such as injury and disease force an organism into a new level of equilibrium—a biological process of finding a "new normal" called allostasis. The researchers' findings carry major implications for the diagnosis and staging of chronic diseases like hypertension and diabetes.
3h ago phys.org
Getting shot by police is a leading cause of death for black men in America
About 1 in 1,000 black men and boys in America can expect to die at the hands of police, according to a new analysis of deaths involving law enforcement officers. That makes them 2.5 times more likely than white men and boys to die during an encounter with cops.
3h ago phys.org
Scientists uncover mystery of DNA methylation
All species mark their DNA with methyl groups. This is done to regulate gene expression, distinguish indigenous DNA from foreign DNA, or to mark old DNA strands during replication. Methylation is carried out by certain enzymes called methyltransferases, which decorate DNA with methyl groups in certain patterns to create an epigenetic layer on top of DNA.
3h ago phys.org
What Greenland Might Have Taught Trump about Warming
The ice-covered island, which is not for sale, is on the front lines of climate change -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
3h ago scientificamerican.com
The curious history of the rise and fall of twin beds
Twin beds—the end of an era in a marriage or a hygienic 'mod-con"?
3h ago phys.org
New artificial compound eye could improve 3-D object tracking
If you've ever tried to swat a fly, you know that insects react to movement extremely quickly. A newly created biologically inspired compound eye is helping scientists understand how insects use their compound eyes to sense an object and its trajectory with such speed. The compound eye could also be used with a camera to create 3-D location systems for robots, self-driving cars and unmanned aerial vehicles.
3h ago phys.org
Researchers discover prehistoric shark species
Two South Carolina researchers have discovered a species of prehistoric shark, along with dozens of other fossils from prehistoric sea creatures.
3h ago phys.org
Editorial: The other thing we need to do to save the planet: Eat less meat
Our love for steaks and burgers is contributing to rapidly exploding climate change and ironically setting up the planet to one day not have enough to eat.
3h ago phys.org
Lithium fluoride crystals 'see' heavy ions with high energies
Lithium fluoride crystals have recently been used to register the tracks of nuclear particles. Physicists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow have just demonstrated that these crystals are also ideal for detecting tracks of high-energy ions of elements even as heavy as iron.
3h ago phys.org
Burning invasive western juniper maintains sagebrush dominance longer
Burning invasive western juniper increases the time—post-fire—that native mountain sagebrush will remain the dominant woody vegetation in the plant community by at least 44 percent compared to cutting juniper back, according to a new study in Ecology and Evolution by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and their collaborators.
3h ago phys.org
Research shows why there's a 'sweet spot' depth for underground magma chambers
A new study reveals why the magma chambers that feed recurrent and often explosive volcanic eruptions tend to reside in a very narrow depth range within the Earth's crust. The findings, published in Nature Geoscience, could help scientists to better understand volcanic processes the world over.
3h ago phys.org
Visual Task May Offer Brain Marker for Autism
The brain deals with viewing two images simultaneously in a distinctive way -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
4h ago scientificamerican.com
Visual Task May Offer a Brain Marker for Autism
The brain deals with viewing two images simultaneously in a distinctive way -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
4h ago scientificamerican.com
How nanoparticles that harvest light could curb climate emissions
Syzygy Plasmonics has raised nearly $6 million to produce a cleaner form of hydrogen, using a novel type of photocatalyst.
4h ago technologyreview.com
The anatomy of a sextortion spam campaign
The latest genre of nuisance email tries to blackmail victims with threats to send embarrassing images or information to their contacts. A new analysis reveals just how much money this type of scam can generate.
4h ago technologyreview.com
Researchers develop materials that can revolutionize how light is harnessed for solar energy
Researchers at Columbia University have developed a way to harness more power from singlet fission to increase the efficiency of solar cells, providing a tool to help push forward the development of next-generation devices.
4h ago phys.org
Scientists aim to solve 'male-killing' evolutionary puzzle in insects
Researchers at the University of Liverpool are leading a new international project to investigate the curious phenomenon of 'male-killing' microbes in insects.
4h ago phys.org
How NASA is becoming more business friendly
A new case study demonstrates the steps being taken by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) to make it easier for small businesses and entrepreneurs to understand its needs and do business with it. The detailed case study, which provides insights on the design, results, and lessons learned from these efforts, is published in New Space: The Journal of Space Entrepreneurship and Innovation.
4h ago phys.org
Scientists co-author Edwards Aquifer memoir
Three Southwest Research Institute scientists contributed their groundwater management expertise to a new book about the Edwards Aquifer, the primary water source for the San Antonio area and surrounding communities. The 27-chapter memoir, titled "The Edwards Aquifer: The Past, Present and Future of a Vital Water Resource" and published by the Geological Society of America (GSA), compiles research spanning decades and addresses emerging challenges facing the aquifer.
4h ago phys.org
A laser-driven programmable non-contact transfer printing technique
A laser-driven programmable non-contact transfer printing technique via an active elastomeric micro-structured stamp, which offers continuously thermal-controlled tunable adhesion with a large switchability of more than 103 at a temperature increase below 100 °C, is developed. This innovative technique creates engineering opportunities in a wide range of applications such as flexible electronics, paper-based electronics, bio-integrated electronics, and microLED displays, where the heterogeneous integration of diverse materials is required.
4h ago phys.org
Microorganisms build the best fuel efficient hydrogen cells
For all the advances technology has made throughout our lives, in many cases it stands behind what nature can do. Ants can carry 5000 times their weight, and spider webs are five times stronger than steel. Fuel efficiency is no different. In a new stud in Angewandte Chemie International Edition, researchers from Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) report new details on the proton transfer pathway of nickel-iron [NiFe]-hydrogenase using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This transfer is crucial for the hydrogen metabolism of microorganisms, and the study gives scientists a better understanding of how to mimic nature in the construction of new biofuel cells.
4h ago phys.org
Targeting cell division in pancreatic cancer
Study provides new evidence of synergistic effects of drugs that inhibit cell division and support for further clinical trials.
4h ago sciencedaily.com
Genetic risk is associated with differences in gut microbiome
Children with a high genetic risk of developing type 1 diabetes have different gut microbiomes than children with a low risk, according to a new study. The results suggest that genetic risk can shape an individual's response to environmental factors in the development of autoimmune diseases.
4h ago sciencedaily.com
Spinning lightwaves on a one-way street
Researchers have created a quantum spin wave for light. This can be a carrier of information for future nanotechnologies but with a unique twist: they only flow in one direction.
4h ago sciencedaily.com
Mississippi River diversions: Driving land gain or land loss?
River diversions have not created or maintained land, but resulted in more land loss, according to a new article.
4h ago sciencedaily.com
A second planet in the Beta Pictoris system
A team of astronomers has discovered a second giant planet in orbit around alpha Pictoris, a star that is relatively young (23 million years old) and close (63.4 light years), and surrounded by a disk of dust. The alpha Pictoris system has fascinated astronomers for the last 30 years since it enables them to observe a planetary system in the process of forming around its star.
4h ago sciencedaily.com
Optic nerve stimulation to aid the blind
Scientists are investigating new ways to provide visual signals to the blind by directly stimulating the optic nerve. Their preliminary study uses a new type of neural electrode and provides distinct signals.
4h ago sciencedaily.com
Mating behavior and movement patterns influence dynamics of animal diseases
Scientists have carried out an analysis of long-term data of an outbreak of classical swine fever in wild boars in the German federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern that occurred between 1993 and 2000. The results show that non-infected regions have a higher risk of infection due to changes in movement patterns, particularly during the mast and rutting seasons (autumn and winter).
4h ago sciencedaily.com
New lipid signaling target may improve T cell immunotherapy
T cell immunotherapy uses the immune system to kill cancer cells. To increase the efficacy of this new treatment, researchers aimed to discover a master regulator of T cell fate. The signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) influences the T cell lineage: high levels of S1P lead to an inhibitory regulatory T cell phenotype, while low levels of S1P lead to a central memory-like phenotype, which exhibit increased anti-cancer functions.
4h ago sciencedaily.com
Binge drinking may be more damaging to women
In a recently published study examining the effects of binge drinking on rats, researchers discovered that female rats who were of equal age and weight to male rats were more sensitive to alcohol and experienced alcoholic liver injury at a higher rate than male rats.
4h ago sciencedaily.com
Materials that can revolutionize how light is harnessed for solar energy
Scientists have designed organic molecules capable of generating two excitons per photon of light, a process called singlet fission. The excitons can live for much longer than those generated from their inorganic counterparts, which leads to an amplification of electricity generated per photon that is absorbed by a solar cell.
4h ago sciencedaily.com
Scientists complete LSST's digital sensor array
After 16 years of dedicated planning and engineering, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have completed a 3.2 gigapixel sensor array for the camera that will be used in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), a massive telescope that will observe the universe like never before.
5h ago phys.org
Uncertainty in emissions estimates in the spotlight
National or other emissions inventories of greenhouse gases that are used to develop strategies and track progress in terms of emissions reductions for climate mitigation contain a certain amount of uncertainty, which inevitably has an impact on the decisions they inform. IIASA researchers contributed to several studies in a recently published volume that aims to enhance understanding of uncertainty in emissions inventories.
5h ago phys.org
Researchers develop tools to help manage seagrass survival
A new QUT-led study has developed a statistical toolbox to help avoid seagrass loss which provides shelter, food and oxygen to fish and at-risk species like dugongs and green turtles.
5h ago phys.org
Scientists unveil first quantum simulation of 3-D topological matter with ultracold atoms
Physicists from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) and Peking University (PKU) have successfully created the world's first 3-D simulation of topological matter consisting of ultracold atoms. Previous attempts at topological matter simulations were limited to lower dimensions, due to challenges on how to characterize 3-D band topology in atomic systems. This breakthrough paves an opening to further examining new topological matter that cannot be well realized in solids. Such never-before-done engineering of artificial material with ultracold atoms may now allow physicists to model unusual phases of matter.
5h ago phys.org
Researchers succeed in materials synthesis for high efficiency in biological reaction
A DGIST research team succeeded in synthesizing new biomimetic materials that will increase the efficiency of chemical reaction related to body metabolism, and discovered that synthesized materials cause the oxidation of aldehydes. The results are expected to have positive impacts on catalyst development in the future.
5h ago phys.org
Two advances in understanding the role of 'charge stripes' in superconducting mate
High-temperature superconductors, which carry electricity with zero resistance at much higher temperatures than conventional superconducting materials, have generated a lot of excitement since their discovery more than 30 years ago because of their potential for revolutionizing technologies such as maglev trains and long-distance power lines. But scientists still don't understand how they work.
5h ago phys.org
National livestock movement bans may prove economically damaging
New research from the University of Warwick has pioneered an economic perspective on controlling livestock diseases. Focusing on Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), bovine TB (bTB) and bluetongue virus (BTV), the researchers draw striking conclusions about the role of movement bans in controlling an outbreak.
5h ago phys.org
Peer influence, social networks might be leveraged to aid gun violence reduction efforts
A new Northwestern University study found that a program aimed at reducing gun violence in Chicago, the Violence Reduction Strategy (VRS), deterred about 100 victimizations over a two-year period.
5h ago phys.org
These migratory birds will risk their lives for a good nap
When driving across country, people can only make it so far before stopping off to rest. Likewise, most migratory songbirds must make stops during their long-distance journeys to sleep along the way. Now, researchers have evidence that songbirds tuck themselves in differently depending on just how worn out they really are.
5h ago phys.org
Lighting up proteins with Immuno-SABER
To better understand how tissues and organs develop, fail to function, and regenerate over time, researchers would like to visualize their constituent cells' repertoires of molecules within 3-D space. Ambitious efforts like the "Human BioMolecular Atlas Program", the "Human Cell Atlas Project", and several brain atlas projects are underway to map the presence and abundance of many proteins—the products of gene expression—in organs and tissues of the human body at the scale of single cells. However, existing imaging methods are typically limited in various aspects of their performance, their accessibility to researchers, or both.
5h ago phys.org
Variation in the shape of speech organs influences language evolution
Why do languages sound so different when people across the world have roughly the same speech organs (mouth, lips, tongue and jaw)? Does the shape of our vocal tract explain some of the variation in speech sounds? In extreme individual cases, it clearly does: When children are born with a cleft palate, the roof of the mouth is not formed properly, which affects their speech. However, it is unclear whether subtle anatomical differences between normal speakers play a role.
5h ago phys.org
Type of brain cell involved in stuttering identified
Researchers believe that stuttering -- a potentially lifelong and debilitating speech disorder -- stems from problems with the circuits in the brain that control speech, but precisely how and where these problems occur is unknown. Using a mouse model of stuttering, scientists report that a loss of cells in the brain called astrocytes are associated with stuttering. The mice had been engineered with a human gene mutation previously linked to stuttering. The study offers insights into the neurological deficits associated with stuttering.
5h ago sciencedaily.com
Antacid helps tuberculosis bacteria to survive
In 2017, some 10 million people suffered from tuberculosis and 1.6 million died of the disease. One reason that infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is so difficult to treat is because the bacteria can hide inside immune cells. University of Groningen scientists, together with a team from the Division of Rheumatology, immunology and Allergy led by professor D. Branch Moody at Harvard Medical School and several other colleagues, have now discovered a key mechanism in the bacteria which prevents the immune cells from killing them: the bacteria produce a unique type of antacid which gives the immune cells indigestion. The results were published in Nature Chemical Biology on 19 August 2019.
5h ago phys.org
When a diseased liver disrupts the brain
The liver plays a vital role as a filter in the body. But what happens when it malfunctions? Researchers performed a detailed analysis of hepatic encephalopathy. The scientists were able to observe for the first time in a mouse model that a dysfunction of the liver provokes cerebral molecular disturbances in two weeks, even though no physical symptoms are apparent. Moreover, several molecules are concerned, including two that were previously unknown.
5h ago sciencedaily.com
Uncertainty in greenhouse gas emissions estimates
National or other emissions inventories of greenhouse gases that are used to develop strategies and track progress in terms of emissions reductions for climate mitigation contain a certain amount of uncertainty, which inevitably has an impact on the decisions they inform. Researchers contributed to several studies in a recently published volume that aims to enhance understanding of uncertainty in emissions inventories.
5h ago sciencedaily.com
Circulation of water in deep Earth's interior
The existence of water in deep Earth is considered to play an important role in geodynamics, because water drastically changes the physical properties of mantle rock, such as melting temperature, electric conductivity, and rheological properties. Water is transported into deep Earth by the hydrous minerals in the subducting cold plates. Hydrous minerals, such as serpentine, mica and clay minerals, contain water in the form of hydroxyl (-OH) in the crystal structure. Most of the hydrous minerals decompose into anhydrous minerals and water when they are transported into deep Earth, at 40-100 km depth, due to the high temperature and pressure conditions.
5h ago sciencedaily.com
Traumas change perception in the long-term
Adults who have experienced maltreatment as children have a changed perception of social stimuli. Traumatized people found touch stimuli less comforting than people who had not experienced trauma. They also maintained a greater social distance from strangers. In addition, the researchers discovered changes in the activation of certain brain areas.
5h ago sciencedaily.com
Researchers find hurricanes drive the evolution of more aggressive spiders
Researchers at McMaster University who rush in after storms to study the behaviour of spiders have found that extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones may have an evolutionary impact on populations living in storm-prone regions, where aggressive spiders have the best odds of survival.
5h ago phys.org
How coastal mud holds the key to climate cooling gas
Bacteria found in muddy marshes, estuaries and coastal sediment synthesise one of the Earth's most abundant climate cooling gases—according to new research from the University of East Anglia (UEA).
5h ago phys.org
Lab-based dark energy experiment narrows search options for elusive force
An experiment to test a popular theory of dark energy has found no evidence of new forces, placing strong constraints on related theories.
5h ago sciencedaily.com
Scientists Have Been Underestimating the Pace of Climate Change
A book titled Discerning Experts explains why—and what can be done about it -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
5h ago blogs.scientificamerican.com
Innovative valve train saves 20% fuel
Scientists have developed an innovative, electrohydraulically actuated valve train for internal combustion engines, that enables completely free adjustment of stroke and timing, while at the same time being robust and cost effective. This valve train was mounted on a serial production engine and has been running successfully for several months. The new technology saves up to 20% fuel.
5h ago sciencedaily.com
Scientists uncover mystery of DNA methylation
To a large extent, DNA methylation, which regulates vital cell functions, is still a big mystery to the scientific world. Now,, scientists have developed a method to quickly couple methylation enzymes to their respective methylation pattern. This finding could become essential for successful gene engineering in many species.
5h ago sciencedaily.com
Students are still using tech to cheat on exams, but things are getting more advanced
In many ways, cheating on high school and college exams used to be a lot harder than it is nowadays.
6h ago phys.org
Interregional differences in somatic genetic landscape diversify prognosis in glioblastoma
Researchers have conducted the largest-ever retrospective cohort study for Japanese patients with glioblastoma (GBM), proposing an underlying prognosis biomarker responsible for the survival difference between two cohorts: an original Japanese cohort and a dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).
6h ago sciencedaily.com
Highly uniform and low hysteresis pressure sensor to increase practical applicability
Researchers have designed a flexible pressure sensor that is expected to have a much wider applicability. A research team fabricated a piezoresistive pressure sensor of high uniformity with low hysteresis by chemically grafting a conductive polymer onto a porous elastomer template.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
First quantum simulation of 3D topological matter with ultracold atoms
Physicists have successfully created the world's first 3D simulation of topological matter consisting of ultracold atoms.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
Microorganisms build the best fuel efficient hydrogen cells
With billions of years of practice, nature has created the most energy efficient machines. One, [Ne-Fi] hydrogenase, is the oldest in microorganisms and is used for hydrogen metabolism. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, researchers reveal the proton transfer pathway of this enzyme, a discovery expected to contribute to new biofuel cells.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
A novel T-cell subset associated with type 1 diabetes
A study has demonstrated that a recently described T-cell subset, so-called peripheral T helper cells, may have a role in the development of type 1 diabetes. The frequency of circulating peripheral T helper cells was observed to be increased both in children with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes and in healthy children who later progressed to type 1 diabetes.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
Wired for sound: A third wave emerges in integrated circuits - Phys.org
Wired for sound: A third wave emerges in integrated circuits  Phys.orgOptical fibres are our global nervous system, transporting terabytes of data across the planet in the blink of an eye.
6h ago phys.org
Puerto Rico's Hurricane Maria provides ethnic studies lesson
When UO ethnic studies associate professor Alaí Reyes-Santos flipped on the late-night news on September 19, 2017, she saw something she'd been dreading since childhood: a category four hurricane was barreling toward Puerto Rico from the southeast.
6h ago phys.org
Ocean warming has fisheries on the move, helping some but hurting more
Climate change has been steadily warming the ocean, which absorbs most of the heat trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, for 100 years. This warming is altering marine ecosystems and having a direct impact on fish populations. About half of the world's population relies on fish as a vital source of protein, and the fishing industry employs more the 56 million people worldwide.
6h ago phys.org
Scientists Mull the Astrobiological Implications of an Airless Alien Planet
A rocky world devoid of atmosphere arouses debate over the habitability of the Milky Way’s most common star systems -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
6h ago scientificamerican.com
Philippines: Still-unknown disease prompts culling of pigs
The Philippine agriculture chief said Monday that an unspecified number of pigs has died or been culled in backyard farms in recent weeks and a crisis team has been established to try to contain the still-unidentified disease causing the swine deaths.
6h ago phys.org
Fukushima disaster: Key takeaways 8 years later
In March and April of 2011 the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disaster resulted in what was the largest ever accidental release of radioactive material into the ocean. Zofia Baumann, assistant professor of marine sciences, has researched the impacts of the disaster on marine ecosystems in the Pacific Ocean, and has authored a section of a chapter in the forthcoming book "Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster" detailing the findings of her research. She discussed her research with UConn Today, sharing some unexpectedly good news in the wake of the disaster.
6h ago phys.org
Researchers document a quantum spin wave for light
Researchers at Purdue University have created a quantum spin wave for light. This can be a carrier of information for future nanotechnologies but with a unique twist: they only flow in one direction.
6h ago phys.org
Circulation of water in deep Earth's interior
Phase H is a hydrous mineral that is considered to be an important carrier of water into deep Earth. We determined the dissociation condition of phase H by a theoretical calculation based on quantum mechanics. Phase H decomposes at approximately 60 GPa at 1000 K. This indicates that the transportation of water by phase H may be terminated at a depth of approximately 1,500 km in the middle of the lower mantle.
6h ago phys.org
Where will evolution take us in the Fourth Industrial Revolution?
The study of evolution allows us to reconstruct the past and to understand how life evolved from simple to complex organisms. Evolutionary reasoning can help us make sense of the biggest questions in science, from the origin of the universe to the inner workings of the human brain.
6h ago phys.org
Animal diseases: Mating behavior and movement patterns influence dynamics
Swine fever, rabies, bird flu—outbreaks of diseases in wildlife populations often also affect farm animals and humans. However, their causes and the dynamics of their spread are often complex and not well understood. A team of scientists led by the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) has now carried out an analysis of long-term data of an outbreak of classical swine fever in wild boars in the German federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern that occurred between 1993 and 2000. The results suggest that non-infected regions have a higher risk of infection due to changes in movement patterns, particularly during the mast and rutting seasons (autumn and winter), and thus highlighting the importance for focusing intervention efforts on specific individuals, seasons and areas in the event of future outbreaks. The findings are published in the Journal of Animal Ecology.
6h ago phys.org
Myths about disaster survivors stall the global response to climate change
The 2018 report from the the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a United Nations body that assesses climate change science, says the world needs to limit global temperature increases to below 1.5C this century.
6h ago phys.org
New 3-D interconnection technology for future wearable bioelectronics
IBS scientists developed stretchable metal composites and 3-D printed them on soft substrates at room temperature. By enabling ever-slimmer 3-D interconnects, this study can help to revolutionize the physical appearance of smart gadgets, in addition to reinforcing their technical functions.
6h ago phys.org
Powerful online tool will help researchers make new genomic discoveries
University of Waterloo researchers have developed a powerful new online tool that allows users to navigate through an interactive microbial tree of life, and to generate new scientific hypotheses and discoveries.
6h ago phys.org
Researchers study the microbiome of ciliates
A microbiome is a community of microorganisms that inhabit an ecological niche. Microbiomes exist in environmental biotopes, for example, a water body or forest soil, as well as in living multicellular host organisms such as humans, animals or plants. A microbiome may be composed of bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes like protists and fungi.
6h ago phys.org
Decoding the scent of a plant
The plant and animal kingdoms are rich in odors that function as key communication modules. Specifically, the interactions between plants and insects come with a plethora of odor exchanges. While some scents help attract pollinators, others act as defense signals. The latter chemicals are typically used to protect against insects that infest plants.
6h ago phys.org
Invisible writing on antique Nile papyrus revealed by multiple methods
Researchers from the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, Berlin universities and Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin studied a small piece of papyrus that was excavated on the island of Elephantine on the River Nile a little over 100 years ago. The team used several methods, including non-destructive techniques at BESSY II. The researchers' work, reported in the Journal of Cultural Heritage, blazes a trail for further analyzes of the papyrus collection in Berlin.
6h ago phys.org
Role of 'charge stripes' in superconducting material
In independent studies, two research teams report important advances in understanding how charge stripes might interact with superconductivity.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
Should doctors accept unvaccinated children as patients?
Four in 10 parents say they are very or somewhat likely to move their child to a different provider if their doctor sees families who refuse all childhood vaccines, according to a new national poll.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
Scientists assess reliability of multiple precipitable water vapor datasets in Central Asia
Careful evaluation and selection of datasets for scientific research are essential, particularly for poorly observed regions such as Central Asia. The ERA5, the new generation reanalysis of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), is the most reliable in revealing the spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in Central Asia, compared with other reanalysis datasets, according to a recent study published in Earth and Space Science.
6h ago phys.org
Ghana's pact with China to explore bauxite threatens a unique forest
Ghana's Atewa forest is one of the most beautiful and scenic landscapes in the country. It is seen as the better of only two Upland Evergreen forests left intact in the country, forming part of the six dominant vegetation zones of Ghana based on different climates zones.
6h ago phys.org
Holography and criticality in matchgate tensor networks
Tensor networks take a central role in quantum physics as they can provide an efficient approximation to specific classes of quantum states. The associated graphical language can also easily describe and pictorially reason about quantum circuits, channels, protocols and open systems. In a recent study, A. Jahn and a research team in the departments of complex quantum systems, materials and energy and mathematics and computer science in Germany introduced a versatile and efficient framework to study tensor networks by extending previous tools. The researchers used bulk tiling (computing geometric technique) in their work to obtain highly accurate critical data and established a link between holographic quantum error-correcting codes and tensor networks. They expect the work to stimulate further investigations of tensor network models to capture bulk-boundary correspondences. The results are now published on Science Advances.
6h ago phys.org
Tools to help manage seagrass survival
A new study has developed a statistical toolbox to help avoid seagrass loss which provides shelter, food and oxygen to fish and at-risk species like dugongs and green turtles.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
Laboratory studies identify a potential way to treat human cancers with ARID1A mutations
A new study shows that tumor cells depleted of ARID1A -- a protein that acts as a cancer suppressor -- become highly sensitive to anticancer poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor drugs after radiation treatment. The research could advance efforts to treat many human cancers with loss of ARID1A that are resistant to current standard treatments, the study team suggests.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
New discipline proposed: Macro-energy systems -- the science of the energy transition
Researchers propose a new academic discipline, 'macro-energy systems,' as the science of the energy transition.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
Paper filter from local algae could save millions of lives in Bangladesh
The problem of access to safe drinking water in most parts of Bangladesh is a persistent challenge. Now, a team of scientists shows that a locally growing and previously unexploited green macroalgae species could be used to extract cellulose nanofibers, which can then be formed into paper sheets with tailored pore size that are utilized for point-of-use water treatment.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
'Hidden' data exacerbates rural public health inequities
While some of the data rural public health officials need to serve their communities and guide public health policy exists, that data is hard to access and use. Researchers conducted qualitative surveys of rural health leaders in four Northwest states to find the barriers they face. Researchers are establishing an accessible database with the tools rural officials need.
6h ago sciencedaily.com
New model agrees with old: Nuclear war between US and Russia would result in nuclear winter
A team of researchers with Rutgers University, the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the University of Colorado has found that a new climate model agrees with an older climate model—a nuclear war between the U.S and Russia would result in a nuclear winter. They have published their findings in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.
6h ago phys.org
Indonesians hit the beach in mass trash pick-up
Thousands of Indonesians combed trash-strewn beaches at the weekend in a nationwide bid to tackle the Southeast Asian nation's mammoth marine waste problem.
6h ago phys.org
Paper filter from local algae could save lives in Bangladesh
The problem of access to safe drinking water in most parts of Bangladesh is a persistent challenge. Now, a team of scientists from Uppsala University, Sweden, and Dhaka University, Bangladesh, shows that a locally growing and previously unexploited green macroalgae species could be used to extract cellulose nanofibers, which can then be formed into paper sheets with tailored pore size that are utilized for point-of-use water treatment.
7h ago phys.org
Tips for keeping rats out of home and garden
Seeing rats in the backyard or, worse yet, in the house, can send people into panic mode, and for good reason.
7h ago phys.org
Who is responsible when an inmate commits suicide?
Jeffrey Epstein's suicidein New York's Metropolitan Correction Center on Aug. 10 has brought new attention to the troubling reality of inmates who kill themselves in America's jails and prisons.
7h ago phys.org
Highly uniform and low hysteresis pressure sensor to increase practical applicability
Researchers have designed a flexible pressure sensor that is expected to have a much wider applicability. A KAIST research team fabricated a piezoresistive pressure sensor of high uniformity with low hysteresis by chemically grafting a conductive polymer onto a porous elastomer template.
7h ago phys.org
Improving dialog across the political divide
The last presidential election was one of the most heated in recent history. With 2020 rapidly approaching and political divisions running even deeper—if that's even possible—you might find yourself wondering, "What good does a political discussion even do?"
7h ago phys.org
Tiny GPS backpacks uncover the secret life of desert bats
A new study from the University of Helsinki using miniaturized satellite-based tags revealed that during drier periods desert bats must fly further and longer to fulfill their nightly needs. According to researchers this signals their struggle in facing dry periods.
7h ago phys.org
Physiological mechanisms leading to enterovirus opening revealed
Enteroviruses are one of the most common human pathogens leading to high number of acute and chronic infections worldwide. The physiological events leading to successful enterovirus infection are still poorly understood. Researchers at the Nanoscience Center at the University of Jyväskylä and at the University of Helsinki have found significant new information concerning the role of Albumin and ions in host cell vesicles that promote genome release and efficient infection. The results may yield targets for therapeutic development. The research was published in the Journal of Virology in August.
7h ago phys.org
Research shows that conflict avoidance is how society overcomes violence
A lack of violence as the American frontier became homesteaded can inform how today's society reacts to privately enforced property rights, according to a study from the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
7h ago phys.org
'It's okay to be poor': Why fighting poverty remains challenging in Indonesia
Poverty remains an ingrained problem in Indonesia despite the country's success in cutting its poverty rate to a single-digit level for the first time in 2018.
7h ago phys.org
Could duckweed feed the world?
Climate change is threatening the world's food supply and the risk of supply disruptions is expected to grow as temperatures rise, according to a new United Nations report co-authored by Rutgers human ecology professor Pamela McElwee. So, how would we feed everyone if the Earth's population hits 9.7 billion in 2050 as projected?
7h ago phys.org