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To save life on Earth, here's the $100 billion-a-year solution
There have been five mass extinctions in the history of the Earth. But in the 21st century, scientists now estimate that society must urgently come to grips this coming decade to stop the very first human-made biodiversity catastrophe.
4/22/2019 phys.org
Poachers threaten precious Madagascar forest and lemurs
Under a leaden sky, six rangers walk silently in single file through Vohibola, one of the last primary forests in eastern Madagascar.
56m ago phys.org
Greek researchers enlist EU satellite against Aegean sea litter
Knee-deep in water on a picture-postcard Lesbos island beach, a team of Greek university students gently deposits a wall-sized PVC frame on the surface before divers moor it at sea.
57m ago phys.org
Tesla probes car fire in Shanghai
US electric auto maker Tesla said Monday it had launched an investigation after a video circulating in China showed one of its cars suddenly burst into flames in a garage in Shanghai.
58m ago phys.org
Group decisions: When more information isn't necessarily better
In nature, group decisions are often a matter of life or death. At first glance, the way certain groups of animals like minnows branch off into smaller sub-groups might seem counterproductive to their survival. After all, information about, say, where to find some tasty fish roe or which waters harbor more of their predators, would flow more freely and seem to benefit more minnows if the school of fish behaved as a whole. However, new research published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B sheds light on the complexity of collective decision-making and uncovers new insights into the benefits of the internal structure of animal groups.
58m ago phys.org
Extensive flooding in eastern Canada forces evacuations
Flooding in eastern Canada forced the evacuation of 1,200 people while more than 600 troops have been deployed in response, authorities said Sunday.
11h ago phys.org
Incident on SpaceX pad could delay its first manned flight
A mysterious but apparently serious incident occurred Saturday in Cape Canaveral, Florida involving the SpaceX capsule intended to carry American astronauts into space late this year, the private company and NASA announced.
11h ago phys.org
The ethical gold rush: Gilded age for guilt-free jewellery
Forget how many carats—how ethical is your gold? As high-end consumers demand to know the origin of their treasures, some jewellers are ensuring they use responsibly sourced, eco-friendly or recycled gold.
1d ago phys.org
Australia orders urgent review after spate of dingo attacks
Australia on Sunday ordered a urgent review into the management of dingoes on a popular tourist island after a spate of attacks by the wild dogs this year.
1d ago phys.org
Doctor-services firm says private data of patients exposed
Nationwide physician-staffing company EmCare says a breach exposed personal data for about 31,000 patients, including in some cases their Social Security numbers and clinical information.
1d ago phys.org
Tesla wants to cut size of board from 11 directors to 7
Tesla plans to cut its board of directors from 11 to seven in a move the electric-car maker says will allow the board to act more nimbly and efficiently.
1d ago phys.org
Can a Pill Really Help You Live Longer?
A new supplement claims to use complex systems science to help increase the human life span -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
1d ago blogs.scientificamerican.com
4/20 Traffic Accidents Claim Curbed
A deeper data dive calls into question a 2018 study that found a spike in fatal traffic accidents apparently related to marijuana consumption on this date.   -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
1d ago flex.acast.com
Making Sense of Quantum Mechanics
Philosopher David Albert thinks there might be a “clear and straightforward” way of thinking about quantum phenomena -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
1d ago blogs.scientificamerican.com
Kangaroo Rats Channel Jackie Chan to Evade Rattlesnakes [Video]
First ever high-speed video of interaction contains big surprises -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
1d ago blogs.scientificamerican.com
The Best of the Physics arXiv (week ending April 20, 2019)
This week’s most thought-provoking papers from the Physics arXiv.
1d ago technologyreview.com
Costa Rica bets on ending fossil fuel use by 2050
Eric Orlich and his wife Gioconda Rojas own two electric vehicles, which they charge at home in the garage thanks to solar panels on their roof.
1d ago phys.org
Panel to review approval of Boeing 737 Max flight controls
A global team of experts next week will begin reviewing how the Boeing 737 Max's flight control system was approved by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration.
1d ago phys.org
Ransomware 'hero' pleads guilty to US hacking charges
A British computer security researcher once hailed as a "hero" for helping stem a ransomware outbreak and later accused of creating malware to attack the banking system said Friday he pleaded guilty to US criminal charges.
1d ago phys.org
Hyena Society Stability Has Last Laugh
Female hyenas keep their clans in line by virtue of their complex social networks. Jason G. Goldman reports.  -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
2d ago flex.acast.com
High performance solid-state sodium-ion battery
Solid-state sodium-ion batteries are far safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries, which pose a risk of fire and explosions, but their performance has been too weak to offset the safety advantages. Researchers have now reported developing an organic cathode that dramatically improves both stability and energy density.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
Thermodynamic magic enables cooling without energy consumption
Physicists have developed an amazingly simple device that allows heat to flow temporarily from a cold to a warm object without an external power supply. Intriguingly, the process initially appears to contradict the fundamental laws of physics.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
Continuing impacts of Deepwater Horizon oil spill
Nine years ago tomorrow -- April 20, 2010 -- crude oil began leaking from the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig into the Gulf of Mexico in what turned out to be the largest marine oil spill in history. A long-term study suggests the oil is still affecting the salt marshes of the Gulf Coast, and reveals the key role that marsh grasses play in the overall recovery of these important coastal wetlands.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
A universal framework combining genome annotation and undergraduate education
Scientists and educators have developed a framework for using new genome sequences as a training resource for undergraduates interested in learning genome annotation. This strategy will both make the process of determining gene functions more efficient and help train the next generation of scientists in bioinformatics.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
Report: FTC considering oversight of Facebook's Zuckerberg
Federal regulators are reportedly considering seeking some kind of oversight of Mark Zuckerberg's leadership of Facebook over the social network giant's mishandling of users' personal information.
2d ago phys.org
Honda slows Accord, Civic production as buyers shift to SUVs
Honda is slowing production of Accord and Civic cars as U.S. buyers continue to favor SUVs and trucks.
2d ago phys.org
A universal framework combining genome annotation and undergraduate education
As genome sequencing becomes cheaper and faster, resulting in an exponential increase in data, the need for efficiency in predicting gene function is growing, as is the need to train the next generation of scientists in bioinformatics. Researchers in the lab of Lukas Mueller, a faculty member of the Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI), have developed a strategy to fulfill both of these needs, benefiting students and researchers in the process.
2d ago phys.org
Study shows continuing impacts of Deepwater Horizon oil spill
Nine years ago tomorrow—April 20, 2010—crude oil began leaking from the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig into the Gulf of Mexico in what turned out to be the largest marine oil spill in history. A long-term study suggests the oil is still affecting the salt marshes of the Gulf Coast, and reveals the key role that marsh grasses play in the overall recovery of these important coastal wetlands.
2d ago phys.org
Thermodynamic magic enables cooling without energy consumption
Physicists at the University of Zurich have developed an amazingly simple device that allows heat to flow temporarily from a cold to a warm object without an external power supply. Intriguingly, the process initially appears to contradict the fundamental laws of physics.
2d ago phys.org
How NASA Earth data aids America, state by state
For six decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to better understand our home planet and improve lives. A new interactive website called Space for U.S. highlights some of the many ways that NASA's Earth observations help people strengthen communities across the United States and make informed decisions about public health, disaster response and recovery, and environmental protection.
2d ago phys.org
Researchers report high performance solid-state sodium-ion battery
Solid-state sodium-ion batteries are far safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries, which pose a risk of fire and explosions, but their performance has been too weak to offset the safety advantages. Researchers Friday reported developing an organic cathode that dramatically improves both stability and energy density.
2d ago phys.org
With Widespread Deforestation, North Korea Faces an Environmental Crisis
Depleted topsoil from lost trees makes farming difficult, exacerbating hunger in the hermit state -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
2d ago scientificamerican.com
Hurricane Michael gets an upgrade to rare Category 5 status
Hurricane Michael, which devastated a swath of the Florida Panhandle last fall, has been upgraded to a Category 5 storm, only the fourth to make recorded landfall in the United States and the first since 1992.
2d ago phys.org
New method to detect off-target effects of CRISPR
Since the CRISPR genome editing technology was invented in 2012, it has shown great promise to treat a number of intractable diseases. However, scientists have struggled to identify potential off-target effects in therapeutically relevant cell types, which remains the main barrier to moving therapies to the clinic. Now, a group of scientists at the Gladstone Institutes and the Innovative Genomics Institute (IGI), with collaborators at AstraZeneca, have developed a reliable method to do just that.
2d ago phys.org
Scientists uncover a link between RNA editing and chloroplast-to-nucleus communication
What will a three-degree-warmer world look like? How will plants fare in more extreme weather conditions? When experiencing stress or damage from various sources, plants use chloroplast-to-nucleus communication to regulate gene expression and help them cope.
2d ago phys.org
The role of digital technologies in mobilizing the alt-right
In "Misogynistic Men Online: How the Red Pill Helped Elect Trump," published in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, Pierce Alexander Dignam and Deana A. Rohlinger examine the transformation of online alt-right forums from marginal spaces of misogynistic collective identity to sites of political mobilization. Dignam and Rohlinger focus on how the sudden political pivot of one of these semianonymous forums, the Red Pill, garnered support for Donald Trump during the 2016 presidential election. In so doing, they shed light on both the increasing salience of online discourse in contemporary politics and on the central roles that misogyny and antifeminism played in the 2016 campaign and election results.
2d ago phys.org
Mesopotamian King Sargon II envisioned ancient city Karkemish as western Assyrian capital
In "A New Historical Inscription of Sargon II from Karkemish," published in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Gianni Marchesi translates a recently discovered inscription of the Assyrian King Sargon II found at the ruins of the ancient city of Karkemish. The inscription, which dates to around 713 B.C., details Sargon's conquest, occupation, and reorganization of Karkemish, including his rebuilding the city with ritual ceremonies usually reserved for royal palaces in capital cities. The text implies that Sargon may have been planning to make Karkemish a western capital of Assyria, from which he could administer and control his empire's western territories.
2d ago phys.org
Solar Energy Isn't Just for Electricity
It can also provide carbon-free heat for a wide variety of industrial processes -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
2d ago blogs.scientificamerican.com
Discovery may help explain why women get autoimmune diseases far more often than men
New evidence points to a key role for a molecular switch called VGLL3 in autoimmune diseases, and the major gap in incidence between women and men. Building on past research showing that women have more VGLL3 in their skin cells than men, a team studied it further in mice. They show that having too much VGLL3 in skin cells pushes the immune system into overdrive, leading to an autoimmune response and symptoms similar to lupus.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
Warming: Plants are also stressed out
What will a three-degree-warmer world look like? When experiencing stress or damage from various sources, plants use chloroplast-to-nucleus communication to regulate gene expression and help them cope. Now, researchers have found that GUN1 -- a gene that integrates numerous chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling pathways -- also plays an important role in how proteins are made in damaged chloroplasts, which provides a new insight into how plants respond to stress.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
New method to detect off-target effects of CRISPR
Since the CRISPR genome editing technology was invented in 2012, it has shown great promise to treat a number of intractable diseases. However, scientists have struggled to identify potential off-target effects in therapeutically relevant cell types, which remains the main barrier to moving therapies to the clinic. Now, a group of scientists have developed a reliable method to do just that.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
Brain Restoration System Explores Hazy Territory between Being Dead or Alive
An experiment that restored cellular function to pigs’ brains hours after death holds the potential for advancing neuroscience research -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
2d ago scientificamerican.com
Salt takes a quick step before falling out of water
When a drop of sea spray lands on a rock and heats under the midday sun, the salt crystalizes and falls out of the evaporating water as a crystal—helping to power the Earth's atmosphere and leaving a delicious kernel of spice for dinner.
2d ago phys.org
Notre Dame's Architectural Legacy
This religious center, cultural icon and UNESCO World Heritage Site is also an engineering marvel -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
2d ago scientificamerican.com
Creating a cloak for grid data in the cloud
Delivering modern electricity is a numbers game. From power plant output to consumer usage patterns, grid operators juggle a complex set of variables to keep the lights on. Cloud-based tools can help manage all of these data, but utility owners and system operators are concerned about security. That concern is keeping them from using the cloud—a collective name for networked Internet computers that provide scalable, flexible and economical computing power.
2d ago phys.org
Through thick and thin: Neutrons track lithium ions in battery electrodes
Lithium-ion batteries are expected to have a global market value of $47 billion by 2023. They are used in numerous applications, because they offer relatively high energy density (storage capacity), high operating voltage, long shelf life and little "memory effect"—a reduction in a rechargeable battery's maximum capacity due to incomplete discharges in previous uses. However, factors such as safety, charge-discharge cycling and operating life expectancy continue to limit the effectiveness of lithium-ion batteries in heavy-duty applications, such as for powering electric vehicles.
2d ago phys.org
Through thick and thin: Neutrons track lithium ions in battery electrodes
Lithium-ion batteries are expected to have a global market value of $47 billion by 2023, but their use in heavy-duty applications such as electric vehicles is limited due to factors such as lengthy charge and discharge cycles. Engineers are examining how the lithium moves in battery electrodes, important in designing batteries that charge and discharge faster.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
Mysterious river dolphin helps crack the code of marine mammal communication
The Araguaian river dolphin of Brazil was thought to be solitary with little social structure that would require communication. But researchers have discovered the dolphins actually are social and can make hundreds of different sounds, a finding that could help uncover how communication evolved in marine mammals.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
Triplet superconductivity demonstrated under high pressure
Researchers have demonstrated a theoretical type of unconventional superconductivity in a uranium-based material, according to a new study.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
Marijuana users weigh less, defying the munchies
New evidence suggests that those who smoke cannabis, or marijuana, weigh less compared to adults who don't. The findings are contrary to the belief that marijuana users who have a serious case of the munchies will ultimately gain more weight.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
On-chip drug screening for identifying antibiotic interactions in eight hours
A research team developed a microfluidic-based drug screening chip that identifies synergistic interactions between two antibiotics in eight hours. This chip can be a cell-based drug screening platform for exploring critical pharmacological patterns of antibiotic interactions, along with potential applications in screening other cell-type agents and guidance for clinical therapies.
2d ago sciencedaily.com
Bringing the border closer to home, one immersion trip at a time
Many if not most Americans have never crossed the U.S. border with Mexico by land or spent any time in that region.
2d ago phys.org
War games shed light on real-world strategies
Want to try your hand at negotiating during a crisis? Think you have a plan that could get the U.S. out of Afghanistan? Confident you could keep a nation secure when multi-party international diplomacy is more important than warfare? Strategy-based board games let you test your political and military acumen right at your kitchen table – while also helping you appreciate how decision-makers are limited by the choices of others.
2d ago phys.org
Why mass shootings don't lead to gun control
Mass shootings happen with numbing frequency in the United States. Despite the extraordinary tragedy of these events, such as the shooting at Columbine High School twenty years ago this week, little progress has been made in policy and law to prevent them from happening again.
2d ago phys.org
Successful tests of a cooler way to transport electricity
Like a metal python, the huge pipe snaking through a CERN high-tech hall is actually a new electrical transmission line. This superconducting line is the first of its kind and allows vast quantities of electrical current to be transported within a pipe of a relatively small diameter. Similar pipes could well be used in towns in the future.
2d ago phys.org
Daily grind: The biography of a stone axe
Tom Breukel analysed some 250 stone axes from the Caribbean and reconstructed their biographies, thus increasing our knowledge of production and trade in the period around the arrival of Columbus. His Ph.D. defence is on 18 April.
2d ago phys.org
Researchers find adding rare-earth element to piezoelectric crystals dramatically improves performance
A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Australia has found that adding the rare-earth element samarium to piezoelectric crystals can dramatically improve their performance. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their work and how well the altered crystals performed when tested. Jiří Hlinka with Fyzikální ústav Akademie Věd České Republiky has published a Perspective piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue.
2d ago phys.org
Tiny pinholes in thin film could pave the way for 3-D holographic displays
Researchers in Korea have designed an ultrathin display that can project dynamic, multi-colored, 3-D holographic images, according to a study published in Nature Communications.
2d ago phys.org
Scientists discover sustainable way to increase seed oil yield in crops
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) scientists have developed a sustainable way to demonstrate a new genetic modification that can increase the yield of natural oil in seeds by up to 15 per cent in laboratory conditions.
2d ago phys.org
On-chip drug screening for identifying antibiotic interactions in eight hours
A KAIST research team developed a microfluidic-based drug screening chip that identifies synergistic interactions between two antibiotics in eight hours. This chip can be a cell-based drug screening platform for exploring critical pharmacological patterns of antibiotic interactions, along with potential applications in screening other cell-type agents and guidance for clinical therapies.
2d ago phys.org
Fuel cells in bacteria
The exchange of nitrogen between the atmosphere and organic matter is crucial for life on Earth because nitrogen is a major component of essential molecules such as proteins and DNA. One major route for this exchange, discovered only in the 1990s, is the anammox pathway found in certain bacteria. It proceeds via hydrazine, a highly reactive substance used by humans as a rocket fuel. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, in cooperation with scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Biophysics and Radboud University in the Netherlands, now describe the structure of the enzyme performing the last step in this process: turning hydrazine into nitrogen gas and harvesting the energy set free in this way. The results, which were just published in Science Advances, show an unprecedented network of heme groups for handling the large number of electrons released during the chemical conversion.
2d ago phys.org
When coastal hazards threaten your Outer Banks trip
A trip to the Outer Banks is a tradition for some North Carolina families and a bucket-list destination for other tourists. A new study from North Carolina State University asked visitors for their reactions to having travel plans disrupted by coastal hazards like washed-out roads or limited beach access. Would they reschedule? Go somewhere else? Stop visiting the Outer Banks?
2d ago phys.org
MicroRNA-like RNAs contribute to the lifestyle transition of Arthrobotrys oligospora
Lifestyle transition is a fundamental mechanism that fungi have evolved to survive and proliferate in different environments. As a typical nematode-trapping fungus, Arthrobotrys oligospora switches from saprophytes to predators on induction of nematode prey. During its induced lifestyle transition, microRNA-like RNAs may play a critical role, which paves new ways for understanding fungal adaptation and pathogenesis.
2d ago phys.org
From nata de coco to computer screens: Cellulose gets a chance to shine
A team at the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research at Osaka University has determined the optical parameters of cellulose molecules with unprecedented precision. They found that cellulose's intrinsic birefringence, which describes how a material reacts differently to light of various orientations, is powerful enough to be used in optical displays, such as flexible screens or electronic paper.
2d ago phys.org
Taming the genome's 'jumping' sequences
The human genome is fascinating. Once predicted to contain about a hundred thousand protein-coding genes, it now seems that the number is closer to twenty thousand, and maybe less. And although our genome is made up of about three billion units—base pairs—many of them don't seem to belong to specific genes, and for that reason they were delegated to the dustbin of genetics: they were literally called "junk DNA".
2d ago phys.org
BRB-seq: The quick and cheaper future of RNA sequencing
RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. Today, such genome-wide expression analyses are a standard tool for genomic studies because they rely on high-throughput technologies, which themselves have become widely available.
2d ago phys.org
Multiple modes for selectivity of transmembrane transport
LMU researchers utilized a biophysical approach to understand how bacterial import proteins bind and selectively convey their cargoes across membranes. The results reveal an unexpectedly wide variety of transfer mechanisms.
2d ago phys.org
American astronaut's dreams of seeing space becoming reality
A Mainer who's headed to the International Space Station says she's always dreamed of being in space and "seeing this giant blue ball below me."
2d ago phys.org
Private cargo ship brings Easter feast to the space station
A private cargo ship brought the makings of an Easter feast to the International Space Station on Friday, along with mice and little flying robots.
2d ago phys.org
Mysterious river dolphin helps crack the code of marine mammal communication
The Araguaian river dolphin of Brazil is something of a mystery. It was thought to be quite solitary, with little social structure that would require communication. But Laura May Collado, a biologist at the University of Vermont, and her colleagues have discovered that the dolphins can actually make hundreds of different sounds to communicate, a finding that could help uncover how communication evolved in marine mammals.
2d ago phys.org
Cities and countries aim to slash plastic waste within a decade
If all goes well, 2030 will be quite a special year.
2d ago phys.org
Usurp the burp: How seaweed can help curb cow burps (and their emissions)
Agricultural and marine scientists at the University of California have joined forces to combat one of the greatest sources of methane emissions in California: cow burps.
2d ago phys.org
Weapons trade reveals a darker side to dark web
Debates over gun regulations make headlines across the world, but there's an underground operation for weapons that has drawn very little attention – until now. Researchers from Michigan State University crept into the dark web to investigate how firearms are anonymously bought and sold around the world.
2d ago phys.org
An exotic microbe and an unusual extraction process may add up to an economical way to make a promising biofuel
Taking a step closer to a "green" replacement for fossil fuels, a research team that includes a chemical engineer at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a novel process using an unusual solvent and an exotic microorganism that may make it possible to manufacture isobutanol and other biofuels more economically.
2d ago phys.org
Opinion: Canada's approach to lunar exploration needs to be strategic or we'll be left behind
Should Canada go to the moon? What's there for Canadians? It is these questions that we should ponder when Prime Minister Justin Trudeau recently announced that Canada will be participating in the new space exploration vision.
2d ago phys.org
Notre Dame: the public and private lives of France's spiritual home
While flames engulfed Notre Dame on the evening of April 15 and the world watched in despair, French president Emmanuel Macron told news cameras that the Paris cathedral was part of the history of all French people:
2d ago phys.org
Opinion: Why protesters should be wary of '12 years to climate breakdown' rhetoric
I was invited to speak to a group of teenagers on climate strike in Oxford recently. Like many scientists, I support the strikes, but also find them disturbing. Which I'm sure is the idea.
2d ago phys.org
Ready for 6G? How AI will shape the network of the future
With 5G networks rolling out around the world, engineers are turning their attention to the next incarnation.
2d ago technologyreview.com
We Need a Space Resources Institute
The moon and other bodies will ultimately be exploited; it’s crucial to do so in a thoughtful and organized way -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
2d ago blogs.scientificamerican.com
Airbnb's explosive growth jolts hotel industry's bottom line
Hospitality service Airbnb is fast becoming the 800-pound gorilla that's shaking up the hotel industry and forever changing it.
2d ago phys.org
Pain Patients Get Relief from War on Opioids
U.S. agencies warn doctors not to abruptly cut off the medications for long-time users -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
2d ago scientificamerican.com
Chemists take a closer look at the spot where water meets air
Water, despite its central place in so many processes vital to life on Earth, remains a chemical mystery in many respects. One of those mysteries is the nature of water at the exact point where it comes into contact with air.
2d ago phys.org
Next frontier in study of gut bacteria: mining microbial molecules
The human gut harbors trillions of invisible microbial inhabitants, referred to as the microbiota, that collectively produce thousands of unique small molecules. The sources and biological functions of the vast majority of these molecules are unknown. Yale researchers recently applied a new technology to uncover microbiota-derived chemicals that affect human physiology, revealing a complex network of interactions with potentially broad-reaching impacts on human health.
2d ago phys.org
Four questions with 'Game of Thrones' expert Lisa Woolfork
Millions of fans just began watching the eighth and final season of the megahit HBO series "Game of Thrones" to see who will emerge from the long winter as the ruler of Westeros.
2d ago phys.org
Video: Soon, kidneys-on-a-chip will rocket to space station
UW scientists are prepping a kidney-on-a-chip experiment at Cape Canaveral, Florida, awaiting a shuttle launch that will take the chips into space. At an altitude of 250 miles, astronauts will help study how reduced gravity in space affects kidney physiology.
4/19/2019 phys.org
India could meet air quality standards by cutting household fuel use
India could make a major dent in air pollution by curbing emissions from dirty household fuels such as wood, dung, coal and kerosene, shows a new analysis led by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley and the India Institute of Technology.
4/19/2019 phys.org
Study outlines new proposal for probing the primordial universe
Most everybody is familiar with the Big Bang—the notion that an impossibly hot, dense universe exploded into the one we know today. But what do we know about what came before?
4/19/2019 phys.org
Things are stacking up for NASA's Mars 2020 spacecraft
For the past few months, the clean room floor in High Bay 1 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, has been covered in parts, components and test equipment for the Mars 2020 spacecraft, scheduled for launch toward the Red Planet in July of 2020. But over the past few weeks, some of these components—the spacecraft-rocket-laden landing system and even the stand-in for the rover (christened "surrogate-rover") - have seemingly disappeared.
4/19/2019 phys.org
Coming soon to China: the car of the future
Global automakers are positioning for a brave new world of on-demand transport that will require a car of the future—hyper-connected, autonomous, and shared—and China may become the concept's laboratory.
4/19/2019 phys.org
Uber wins $1bn investment from Toyota, SoftBank fund
Japanese car giant Toyota and investment fund SoftBank Vision Fund on Friday unveiled an investment of $1 billion in US company Uber to drive forward the development of driverless ridesharing services.
4/19/2019 phys.org
Molecular target UNC45A is essential for cancer but not normal cell proliferation
Identifying a protein that plays a key role in cancer cell growth is a first step toward the development of a targeted cancer therapy. It is especially promising when this protein is dispensable for the growth of normal cells. Their discovery that UNC45A fits these criteria has researchers, led by Dr. Ahmed Chadli, of the Georgia Cancer Center at Augusta University, excited about potential new cancer therapeutic strategies involving the inhibition of UNC45A.
4/19/2019 phys.org
New book traces expeditions to test Einstein's theory of relativity
No Shadow of a Doubt, a new book by Daniel Kennefick, associate professor of physics at the University of Arkansas, tells the story of two research teams, organized by Arthur Stanley Eddington and Sir Frank Watson Dyson, who tested Einstein's theory of relativity. These expeditions traveled to Brazil and Africa to collect images of stars during the 1919 eclipse, and their results confirmed and brought mainstream attention to the theory.
4/19/2019 phys.org
Important insight on the brain-body connection
A study reveals that neurons in the motor cortex exhibit an unexpected division of labor, a finding that could help scientists understand how the brain controls the body and provide insight on certain neurological disorders.
4/19/2019 sciencedaily.com
Investigators incorporate randomized trial within dialysis care delivery
The Time to Reduce Mortality in ESRD (TiME) trial was a large pragmatic trial demonstration project designed to determine the benefits of hemodialysis sessions that are longer than many patients currently receive. The trial was conducted through a partnership between academic investigators and 2 large dialysis provider organizations using a highly centralized implementation approach. Although the trial accomplished most of its demonstration project objectives, uptake of the intervention was insufficient to determine whether longer sessions improve outcomes.
4/19/2019 sciencedaily.com
BRB-seq: The quick and cheaper future of RNA sequencing
Bioengineers have developed a new method for Bulk RNA Sequencing that combines the multiplexing-driven cost-effectiveness of a single-cell RNA-seq workflow with the performance of a bulk RNA-seq procedure.
4/19/2019 sciencedaily.com
Brain wiring differences identified in children with conduct disorder
Behavioral problems in young people with severe antisocial behavior -- known as conduct disorder -- could be caused by differences in the brain's wiring that link the brain's emotional centers together, according to new research.
4/19/2019 sciencedaily.com
Gluten-Free Restaurant Foods Are Often Mislabeled
One in three gluten-free dishes tested at restaurants contained gluten—especially GF pizzas and pastas. Christopher Intagliata reports. -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
4/18/2019 flex.acast.com
How do we make moral decisions?
Some people may rely on principles of both guilt and fairness and may switch their moral rule depending on the circumstances, according to a new study on moral decision-making and cooperation.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Behavioral disorders in kids with autism linked to reduced brain connectivity
More than a quarter of children with autism spectrum disorder are also diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorders. Now researchers have identified a possible biological cause: a key mechanism that regulates emotion functions differently in the brains of the children who exhibit disruptive behavior.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Facebook says it stored 'millions' of unencrypted Instagram passwords (Update)
"Millions" of Instagram users had their passwords stored in unencrypted form on internal servers, Facebook said Thursday, raising its original estimate of tens of thousands.
4/18/2019 phys.org
Netflix unveils plans for New York production hub
Netflix announced plans Thursday to create a New York City production center for its original programs that could lead to thousands of new jobs.
4/18/2019 phys.org
Americans' energy use surges despite climate change concern
Americans burned a record amount of energy in 2018, with a 10% jump in consumption from booming natural gas helping to lead the way, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says.
4/18/2019 phys.org
NASA's 1st female astronaut candidate, Jerrie Cobb, dies
NASA's first female astronaut candidate, pilot Jerrie Cobb, has died.
4/18/2019 phys.org
Tech startups Pinterest, Zoom soar in Wall Street debut
Pinterest got off to a flying start on Wall Street Thursday in the market debut for the San Francisco-based visual discovery service, a positive sign for the wave of Silicon Valley firms planning stock listings.
4/18/2019 phys.org
IPOs help communities prosper, new research shows
Companies that go public on the stock market provide an economic boost to the local communities where they're based, according to new research from Rice University's Jones Graduate School of Business.
4/18/2019 phys.org
New variety of zebra chip disease threatens potato production in southwestern Oregon
Named after the dark stripes that form inside potatoes after they are cut and fried, zebra chip disease is a potentially devastating affliction that can result in yield losses up to 100% for farmers.
4/18/2019 phys.org
Fish under threat release chemicals to warn others of danger
Fish warn each other about danger by releasing chemicals into the water as a signal, research by the University of Saskatchewan (USask) has found.
4/18/2019 phys.org
Preliminary study suggests mercury not a risk in dog foods
Researchers at the University of California, Davis, recently investigated levels of methylmercury in a small sampling of commercial dog foods and found good news for dog owners. Of the 24 diets tested, only three were positive for low concentrations of total mercury, and only one of those contained detectable methylmercury. The study was published in Topics in Companion Animal Medicine.
4/18/2019 phys.org
New variety of zebra chip disease threatens potato production in southwestern Oregon
Named after the dark stripes that form inside potatoes after they are cut and fried, zebra chip disease is a potentially devastating affliction that can result in yield losses up to 100 percent for farmers. Researchers identified a new haplotype, designated haplotype F, that causes zebra chip symptoms in potato.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
How the hepatitis B virus establishes persistent infection
New research sheds light on how a hepatitis B viral protein stimulates the expansion of immune cells that impair antiviral responses. The findings potentially explain how the hepatitis B virus (HBV) establishes and maintains chronic infection, and could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Preliminary study suggests mercury not a risk in dog foods
Researchers recently investigated levels of methylmercury in a small sampling of commercial dog foods and found good news for dog owners. Of the 24 diets tested, only three were positive for low concentrations of total mercury, and only one of those contained detectable methylmercury.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Data mining digs up hidden clues to major California earthquake triggers
A powerful computational study of southern California seismic records has revealed detailed information about a plethora of previously undetected small earthquakes, giving a more precise picture about stress in the earth's crust.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Experimental Gene Therapy Frees "Bubble-Boy" Babies from a Life of Isolation
Treatment restores immune-system function in young children with severe disorder -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
4/18/2019 scientificamerican.com
Fish under threat release chemicals to warn others of danger
Fish warn each other about danger by releasing chemicals into the water as a signal, research has found.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Coincidence helps with quantum measurements
Through randomly selected measurements, physicists can determine the quantum entanglement of many-particle systems. With the newly developed method, quantum simulations can be extended to a larger number of quantum particles. Researchers now report on the first successful demonstration of this method.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Brain's imperfect execution of mathematically optimal perception
Human perception is based on mathematically optimal principles, but the brain implements those principles imperfectly, suggests new research.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Does time of day affect the body's response to exercise?
New research confirms that the circadian clock is an important factor in how the body responds to physical exertion. Based on this work alone, it's too early to say when the best time is for you to go for a jog. But at least in the lab, exercise in the evening seems to be more productive, although human lifestyles are much more complicated.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Flies smell through a Gore-Tex system
Scientists have gained important insights into how the nanopores that allow the fruit fly to detect chemicals in the air, and has identified the gene responsible for their development.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Genetic variants that protect against obesity could aid new weight loss medicines
Around four million people in the UK carry genetic variants that protect them from obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease, suggests new research. The team say the discovery could lead to the development of new drugs that help people lose weight.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Certain strains of bacteria associated with diabetic wounds that do not heal
Whether a wound -- such as a diabetic foot ulcer -- heals or progresses to a worse outcome, including infection or even amputation, may depend on the microbiome within that wound.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Study shows promise in repairing damaged myelin
A new study shows that a synthetic molecule stimulates repair of the protective sheath that covers nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The study demonstrates in mice that a synthetic molecule called sobetirome efficiently repairs damaged myelin without side effects.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
New immune pathway involved in resistance to parasite worms found in undercooked pork
Scientists have discovered that immune responses originally found to prevent fungal infections are also important in eliminating Trichinella spiralis, a round worm and the causative agent of Trichinosis. People acquire trichinellosis by consuming raw or undercooked meat infected with the Trichinella parasite, particularly wild game meat or pork.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Growing a cerebral tract in a microscale brain model
An international research team modeled the growth of cerebral tracts. Using neurons derived from stem cells, they grew cortical-like spheroids. In a microdevice, the spheroids extended bundles of axons toward each other, forming a physical and electrical connection. Fascicles grew less efficiently when one spheroid was absent, and when a gene relevant to cerebral tract formation was knocked-down. The study further illuminates brain growth and developmental disorders.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
New concept for novel fire extinguisher in space
Researchers have developed a new concept of fire extinguishing, named Vacuum Extinguish Method. VEM is based on the 'reverse' operation of the conventional fire extinguishing procedure: It sucks the combustion products, even flame and the firing source itself, into a vacuum chamber to clean up the firing zone. This concept is advantageous for space use, as it prevents the spread of harmful combustible products throughout the enclosed cabin.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Infection biology: Gut microbe helps thwart Salmonella
Researchers have identified a bacterial species in the gut microbiome of the mouse which protects against infection by human-pathogenic Salmonella.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com
Engineering researcher uses network science to understand how materials work
Using network science -- part of a larger mathematical field called graph theory -- a professor mapped long range atomic forces onto an incredibly complex graph to simulate macroscopic material behavior.
4/18/2019 sciencedaily.com